In an earlier blogpost, I wrote about Kubernetes Policies on Azure Kubernetes Service with the Azure Policy add-on. The add-on installs Gatekeeper v3 on AKS, which relies on Open Policy Agent to define your policies. Open Policy Agent is a general cloud-native solution for policy-based control, which goes beyond Kubernetes. Defining custom policies for OPA (and thus Gatekeeper), requires knowledge of rego, their policy language. Rego is very powerful and flexible but can be a bit daunting. As always, there’s a learning curve but the feedback I get is that it can be quite steep.
When you are using Azure Policy with the AKS add-on, you can only use the built-in Azure policies. If you want custom policies, you should install Gatekeeper v3 on AKS yourself and write your own ConstraintTemplates that contain the policy logic written in rego.
If you only need policies for Kubernetes and you want to express the policies in YAML, Kyverno is a good alternative. It makes it relatively easy to write validation policies. In addition to validation policies, Kyverno supports mutation and generation policies. More about that later.
Installation is very easy via a raw YAML manifest or a Helm chart. Because the Kyverno policy engine runs as an admission webhook, it requires secure communication from the Kubernetes API server. By default, the installation uses self-signed certificates.
The simplest way to install it is via the command below:
kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kyverno/kyverno/main/definitions/release/install.yaml
Always check the raw YAML before submitting it to your cluster! By default, the admission webhook is installed in the kyverno namespace, via a deployment that deploys 1 replica of ghcr.io/kyverno/kyverno:v1.3.5-rc2 (or whatever is in the install.yaml at the time of installation). This install.yaml always refers to the latest release, which includes release candidates. You should change the version of the image to the latest stable release in production scenarios. At the time of writing, the latest stable release was 1.3.4.
As discussed above, you can write three types of policies:
- validation: write rules to deny the creation of resources and enforce them in realtime or audit them
- mutation: patch incoming JSON requests to modify them before validation and submission to etcd
- generation: creating additional objects; e.g., when you create a namespace, add roles to the namespace or add a default-deny network policy
To illustrate the creation of these types of policies, I created a video on my YouTube channel:
CI/CD Policy Check
Before you deploy workloads to Kubernetes, it is a good idea to check if your manifests pass your policy rules before you deploy. For OPA, you can do that with conftest. On GitHub Marketplace, you will find several actions that can run conftest in a workflow.
To check your manifests with Kyverno, there is the Kyverno CLI. You simply put the same policies you submit to your cluster in a folder (e.g., policies) and then run the CLI as shown below (in the folder containing the policies and deploy folders):
kyverno apply ./policies --resource=./deploy/deployment.yaml
Above, the policies are applied to just one manifest (deployment.yaml). It works with multiple manifests as well. When there is an issue, you will see it in the output:
policy require-run-as-non-root -> resource default/Deployment/go-template-deployment failed: 1. autogen-check-containers: validation error: Running as root is not allowed. The fields spec.securityContext.runAsNonRoot, spec.containers[*].securityContext.runAsNonRoot, and spec.initContainers[*].securityContext.runAsNonRoot must be `true`. Rule autogen-check-containers failed at path /spec/template/spec/containers/0/securityContext/runAsNonRoot/. Rule autogen-check-containers failed at path /spec/template/spec/containers/0/securityContext/runAsNonRoot/. pass: 14, fail: 1, warn: 0, error: 0, skip: 0
Above, kyverno apply found that my deployment has securityContext.runAsNonRoot: false set, which is not allowed.
To run this check in a GitHub workflow, I created a GitHub action that does exactly that. Apparently, such an action did not exist. Drop me a comment if there is another way. You can find the GitHub Action on the marketplace: https://github.com/marketplace/actions/kyverno-cli.
To use the action in a workflow, drop in a snippet similar to the one below:
- name: Validate policy uses: gbaeke/kyverno-cli@v1 with: command: | kyverno apply ./policies --resource=./deploy/deployment.yaml
Here’s a link to a workflow that uses it: https://github.com/gbaeke/go-template/blob/main/.github/workflows/test.yml.
There’s more you can do with the CLI so be sure to check out the documentation.
Although we only scratched the surface in this post and the above video, in my opinion Kyverno is somewhat easier to get started with than OPA Gatekeeper. Having the ability to create mutation and generation policies opens up all kinds of interesting scenarios as well. The documentation is clear and the examples are a good way to get you started. If you only need policies on Kubernetes and not the wide capabilities of OPA, give it a try and tell me what you think!