In a previous article, I wrote about the AKS Azure Cloud Provider and its support for Azure Private Link. In summary, the functionality allows for the following:
- creation of a Kubernetes service of type LoadBalancer
- via an annotation on the service, the Azure Cloud Provider creates an internal load balancer (ILB) instead of a public one
- via extra annotations on the service, the Azure Cloud Provider creates an Azure Private Link Service for the Internal Load Balancer (🆕)
In the article, I used Azure Front Door as an example to securely publish the Kubernetes service to the Internet via private link.
Although you could publish all your services using the approach above, that would not be very efficient. In the real world, you would use an Ingress Controller like ingress-nginx to avoid the overhead of one service of type LoadBalancer per application.
Publish the Ingress Controller with Private Link Service
In combination with the Private Link Service functionality, you can just publish an Ingress Controller like ingress-nginx. That would look like the diagram below:
In the above diagram, our app does not use a LoadBalancer service. Instead, the service is of the ClusterIP type. To publish the app externally, an ingress resource is created to publish the app via ingress-nginx. The ingress resource refers to the ClusterIP service super-api. There is nothing new about this. This is Kubernetes ingress as usual:
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: super-api-ingress spec: ingressClassName: nginx rules: - host: www.myingress.com http: paths: - pathType: Prefix path: "/" backend: service: name: super-api port: number: 80
Note that I am using the host http://www.myingress.com as an example here. In Front Door, I will need to configure a custom host header that matches the ingress host. Whenever Front Door connects to the Ingress Controller via Private Link Service, the host header will be sent to allow ingress-nginx to route traffic to the super-api service.
In the diagram, you can see that it is the ingress-nginx service that needs the annotations to create a private link service. When you install ingress-nginx with Helm, just supply a values file with the following content:
controller: service: annotations: service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-load-balancer-internal: "true" service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-create: "true" service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-ip-configuration-ip-address: IP_IN_SUBNET service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-ip-configuration-ip-address-count: "1" service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-ip-configuration-subnet: SUBNET_NAME service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-name: PLS_NAME service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-proxy-protocol: "false" service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-pls-visibility: '*'
Via the above annotations, the service created by the ingress-nginx Helm chart will use an internal load balancer. In addition, a private link service for the load balancer will be created.
Front Door Config
The Front Door configuration is almost the same as before, except that we need to configure a host header on the origin:
When I issue the command below (FQDN is the Front Door endpoint):
the response is the following:
Hello from Super API Source IP and port: 10.244.0.12:40244 X-Forwarded-For header: 10.224.10.20 All headers: HTTP header: X-Real-Ip: [10.224.10.20] HTTP header: X-Forwarded-Scheme: [http] HTTP header: Via: [2.0 Azure] HTTP header: X-Azure-Socketip: [MY HOME IP] HTTP header: X-Forwarded-Host: [www.myingress.com] HTTP header: Accept: [*/*] HTTP header: X-Azure-Clientip: [MY HOME IP] HTTP header: X-Azure-Fdid: [f76ca0ce-32ed-8754-98a9-e6c02a7765543] HTTP header: X-Request-Id: [5fd6bb9c1a4adf4834be34ce606d980e] HTTP header: X-Forwarded-For: [10.224.10.20] HTTP header: X-Forwarded-Port:  HTTP header: X-Original-Forwarded-For: [MY HOME IP, 18.104.22.168] HTTP header: User-Agent: [curl/7.58.0] HTTP header: X-Azure-Requestchain: [hops=2] HTTP header: X-Forwarded-Proto: [http] HTTP header: X-Scheme: [http] HTTP header: X-Azure-Ref: [0nPGlYgAAAABefORrczaWQ52AJa/JqbBAQlJVMzBFREdFMDcxMgBmNzZjYTBjZS0yOWVkLTQ1NzUtOThhOS1lNmMwMmE5NDM0Mzk=, 20220612T140100Z-nqz5dv28ch6b76vb4pnq0fu7r40000001td0000000002u0a]
/source endpoint of super-api dumps all the HTTP headers. Note the following:
- X-Real-Ip: is the address used for NATting by the private link service
- X-Azure-Fdid: is the Front Door Id that allows us to verify that the request indeed passed Front Door
- X-Azure-Clientip: my home IP address; this is the result of setting
externalTrafficPolicy: Localon the ingress-nginx service; the script I used to install ingress-nginx happened to have this value set; it is not required unless you want the actual client IP address to be reported
- X-Forwarded-Host: the host header; the original FQDN aks-agbyhedaggfpf5bs.z01.azurefd.net cannot be seen
In the real world, you would configure a custom domain in Front Door to match the configured host header.
In this post, we published a Kubernetes Ingress Controller (ingress-nginx) via an internal load balancer and Azure Private Link. A service like Azure Front Door can use this functionality to provide external connectivity to the internal Ingress Controller with extra security features such as Azure WAF. You do not have to use Front Door. You can provide access to the Ingress Controller from a Private Endpoint in any network and any subscription, including subscriptions you do not control.
Although this functionality is interesting, it is not automated and integrated with Kubernetes ingress functionality. For that reason alone, I would not recommend using this. It does provide the foundation to create an alternative to Application Gateway Ingress Controller. The only thing that is required is to write a controller that integrates Kubernetes ingress with Front Door instead of Application Gateway. 😉