Virtual Node support in Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

Although I am using Kubernetes a lot, I didn’t quite get to trying the virtual nodes support. Virtual nodes is basically the implementation on AKS of the virtual kubelet project. The virtual kubelet project allows Kubernetes nodes to be backed by other services that support containers such as AWS Fargate, IoT Edge, or Microsoft’s ACI (Azure Container Instances). The idea is that you spin up containers using the familiar Kubernetes API but on services like Fargate and ACI that can instantly scale and only charge you for the seconds the containers are running.

As expected, the virtual nodes support that is built into AKS uses ACI as the backing service. To use it, you need to deploy Kubernetes with virtual nodes support. Use either the CLI or the Azure Portal:

  • CLI: uses the Azure CLI on your machine or from cloud shell
  • Portal: uses the Azure Portal

Note that virtual nodes for AKS are currently in preview. Virtual nodes require AKS to be configured with the advanced network option. You will need to provide a subnet for the virtual nodes that will be dedicated to ACI. The advanced networking option gives you additional control about IP ranges but also allows you to deploy a cluster in an existing virtual network. Note that advanced networking results in the use of the Azure Virtual Network container network interface. Each pod on a regular host gets its own IP address on the virtual network. You will see them in the network as connected devices:

Connected devices on the Kubernetes VNET (includes pods)

In contrast, the containers you will create in the steps below will not show up as connected devices since they are managed by ACI which works differently.

Ok, go ahead and deploy a Kubernetes cluster or just follow along. After deployment, kubectl get nodes will show a result similar to the screenshot below:

kubectl get nodes output with virtual node

With the virtual node online, we can deploy containers to it. Let’s deploy the ONNX ResNet50v2 container from an earlier post and scale it up. Create a YAML file like below and use kubectl apply -f path_to_yaml to create a deployment:

 apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
name: resnet
replicas: 1
app: resnet
app: resnet
- name: onnxresnet50v2
image: gbaeke/onnxresnet50v2
- containerPort: 5001
cpu: 1
cpu: 1
nodeSelector: agent linux
type: virtual-kubelet
- key:
operator: Exists
- key:
effect: NoSchedule

With the nodeSelector, you constrain a pod to run on particular nodes in your cluster. In this case, we want to deploy on a host of type virtual-kubelet. With the toleration, you specify that the container can be scheduled on the hosts that match the specified taints. There are two taints here, and which are applied to the virtual kubelet node.

After executing the above YAML, I get the following result after kubectl get pods -o wide:

The pod is pending on node virtual-node-aci-linux

After a while, the pod will be running, but it’s actually just a container on ACI.

Let’s expose the deployment with a public IP via an Azure load balancer:

kubectl expose deployment resnet --port=80 --target-port=5001 --type=LoadBalancer

The above command creates a service of type LoadBalancer that maps port 80 of the Azure load balancer to, eventually, port 5001 of the container. Just use kubectl get svc to see the external IP address. Configuring the load balancer usually takes around one minute.

Now let’s try to scale the deployment to 100 containers:

kubectl scale --replicas=100 deployments/resnet

Instantly, the containers will be provisioned on ACI via the virtual kubelet:

NAME                      READY     STATUS     RESTARTS   AGE
resnet-6d7954d5d7-26n6l 0/1 Waiting 0 30s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-2bjgp 0/1 Creating 0 30s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-2jsrs 0/1 Creating 0 30s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-2lvqm 0/1 Pending 0 27s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-2qxc9 0/1 Creating 0 30s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-2wnn6 0/1 Creating 0 28s
resnet-6d7954d5d7-44rw7 0/1 Creating 0 30s
.... repeat ....

When you run kubectl get endpoints you will see all the endpoints “behind” the resnet service:

NAME         ENDPOINTS                                                       
+ 97 more…

In container monitoring:

Hey, one pod has an issue! Who cares right?

As you can see, it is really easy to get started with virtual nodes and to scale up a deployment. In a later post, I will take a look at auto scaling containers on a virtual node.

Microsoft Face API with a local container

A few days ago, I obtained access to the Face container. It provides access to the Face API via a container you can run where you want: on your pc, at the network edge or in your datacenter. You should allocate 6 GB or RAM and 2 cores for the container to run well. Note that you still need to create a Face API resource in the Azure Portal. The container needs to be associated with the Azure Face API via the endpoint and access key:

Face API with a West Europe (Amsterdam) endpoint

I used the Standard tier, which charges 0.84 euros per 1000 calls. As noted, the container will not function without associating it with an Azure Face API resource.

When you gain access to the container registry, you can pull the container:

docker pull

After that, you can run the container as follows (for API billing endpoint in West Europe):

docker run --rm -it -p 5000:5000 --memory 6g --cpus 2 Eula=accept Billing= ApiKey=YOUR_API_KEY

The container will start. You will see the output (–it):

Running Face API container

And here’s the spec:

API spec Face API v1

Before showing how to use the detection feature, note that the container needs Internet access for billing purposes. You will not be able to run the container in fully offline scenarios.

Over at, you can find a simple example in Go that uses the container. The Face API can take a byte stream of an image or a URL to an image. The example takes the first approach and loads an image from disk as specified by the -image parameter. The resulting io.Reader is passed to the getFace function which does the actual call to the API (uri = http://localhost:5000/face/v1.0/detect):

request, err := http.NewRequest("POST", uri+"?returnFaceAttributes="+params, m)
request.Header.Add("Content-Type", "application/octet-stream")

// Send the request to the local web service
resp, err := client.Do(request)
if err != nil {
    return "", err

The response contains a Body attribute and that attribute is unmarshalled to a variable of type interface. That one is marshalled with indentation to a byte slice (b) which is returned by the function as a string:

var response interface{}
err = json.Unmarshal(respBody, &response)
if err != nil {
    return "", err
b, err := json.MarshalIndent(response, "", "\t")

Now you can use a picture like the one below:

Is he smiling?

Here are some parts of the input, following the command
detectface -image smiling.jpg

Emotion is clearly happiness with additional features such as age, gender, hair color, etc…

"faceAttributes": {
"accessories": [],
"age": 33,
"blur": {
"blurLevel": "high",
"value": 1
"emotion": {
"anger": 0,
"contempt": 0,
"disgust": 0,
"fear": 0,
"happiness": 1,
"neutral": 0,
"sadness": 0,
"surprise": 0
"exposure": {
"exposureLevel": "goodExposure",
"value": 0.71
"facialHair": {
"beard": 0.6,
"moustache": 0.6,
"sideburns": 0.6
"gender": "male",
"glasses": "NoGlasses",
"hair": {
"bald": 0.26,
"hairColor": [
"color": "black",
"confidence": 1
"faceId": "b6d924c1-13ef-4d19-8bc9-34b0bb21f0ce",
"faceRectangle": {
"height": 1183,
"left": 944,
"top": 167,
"width": 1183

That’s it! Give the Face API container a go with the tool. You can get it here: (Windows)

Infrastructure as Code: exploring Pulumi

Image: from the Pulumi website

In my Twitter feed, I often come across Pulumi so I decided to try it out. Pulumi is an Infrastructure as Code solution that allows you to use familiar development languages such as JavaScript, Python and Go. The idea is that you define your infrastructure in the language that you prefer, versus some domain specific language. When ready, you merely use pulumi up to deploy your resources (and pulumi update, pulumi destroy, etc…). The screenshot below shows the deployment of an Azure resource group, storage account, file share and a container group on Azure Container Instances. The file share is mapped as a volume to one of the containers in the container group:

Deploying infrastructure with pulumi up

Installation is extremely straightforward. I chose to write the code in JavaScript as I had all the tools already installed on my Windows box. It is also more polished than the Go option (for now). I installed Pulumi per their instructions over at

Next, I used their cloud console to create a new project. Eventually, you will need to run a pulumi new command on your local machine. The cloud console will provide you with the command to use which is handy when you are just getting started. The cloud console provides a great overview of all your activities:

Nice and green (because I did not include the failed ones 😉)

In Resources, you can obtain a graph of the deployed resources:

Don’t you just love pretty graphs like this?

Let’s take a look at the code. The complete code is in the following gist:

Resource group, storage account and share

The above code creates the resource group, storage account and file share. It is so straightforward that there is no need to explain it, especially if you know how it works with ARM. The simplicity of just referring to properties of resources you just created is awesome!

Next, we create a container group with two containers:

Creating the container group

If you have ever created a container group with a YAML file or ARM template, the above code will be very familiar. It defines a DNS label for the group and sets the type to Linux (ACI also supports Windows). Then two containers are added. The realtime-go container uses CertMagic to obtain Let’s Encrypt certificates. The certificates should be stored in persistent storage and that is what the Azure File Share is used for. It is mounted on /.local/share/certmagic because that is where the files will be placed in a scratch container.

I did run into a small issue with the container group. The realtime-go container should expose both port 80 and 443 but the port setting is a single numeric value. In YAML or ARM, multiple ports can be specified which makes total sense. Pulumi has another cross-cloud option to deploy containers which might do the trick.

All in all, I am pleasantly surprised with Pulumi. It’s definitely worth a more in-depth investigation!

Azure API Management Consumption Tier

In the previous post, I talked about a personal application I use to deploy Azure resources to my lab subscription. The architecture is pretty straightforward:

After obtaining an id token from Azure Active directory (v1 endpoint), API calls go to API Management with the token in the authorization HTTP header.

API Management is available in several tiers:

API Management tiers

The consumption tier, with its 1.000.000 free calls per month per Azure subscription naturally is the best fit for this application. I do not need virtual network support or multi-region support or even Active Directory support. And I don’t want the invoice either! 😉 Note that the lack of Active Directory support has nothing to do with the ability to verify the validity of a JWT (JSON Web Token).

I created an instance in West Europe but it gave me errors while adding operations (like POSTs or GETs). It complained about reaching the 1000 operations limit. Later, I created an instance in North Europe which had no issues.

Define a product

A product contains one or more APIs and has some configuration such as quotas. You can read up on API products here. You can also add policies at the product level. One example of a policy is a JWT check, which is exactly what I needed. Another example is adding basic authentication to the outgoing call:

Policies at the product level

The first policy, authentication, configures basic authentication and gets the password from the BasicAuthPassword named value:

Named values in API Management

The second policy is the JWT check. Here it is in full:

JWT Policy

The policy checks the validity of the JWT and returns a 401 error if invalid. The openid-config url points to a document that contains useful information to validate the JWT, including a pointer to the public keys that can be used to verify the JWT’s signature ( Note that I also check for the name claim to match mine.

Note that Active Directory is also configured to only issue a token to me. This is done via Enterprise Applications in

Creating the API

With this out of the way, let’s take a look at the API itself:

Azure Deploy API and its defined operations

The operations are not very RESTful but they do the trick since they are an exact match with the webhookd server’s endpoints.

To not end up with CORS errors, All Operations has a CORS policy defined:

CORS policy at the All operations level

Great! The front-end can now authenticate to Azure AD and call the API exposed by API management. Each call has the Azure AD token (a JWT) in the authorization header so API Management van verify the token’s validity and pass along the request to webhookd.

With the addition of the consumption tier, it makes sense to use API Management in many more cases. And not just for smaller apps like this one!

Simple Azure AD Authentication in a single page application (SPA)

Adding Azure AD integration to a website is often confusing if you are just getting started. Let’s face it, not everybody has the opportunity to dig deep into such topics. For, I wanted to enable Azure AD authentication so that only a select group of users in our AD tenant can call the back-end webhooks exposed by webhookd. The architecture of the application looks like this:

Client to webhook

The process is as follows:

  • Load the client from
  • Client obtains a token from Azure Active Directory; the user will have to authenticate; in our case that means that a second factor needs to be provided as well
  • When the user performs an action that invokes a webhook, the call is sent to API Management
  • API Management verifies the token and passes the request to webhookd over https with basic authentication
  • The response is received by API Management which passes it unmodified to the client

I know you are an observing reader that is probably thinking: “why not present the token to webhookd?”. That’s possible but then I did not have a reason to use API Management! 😉

Before we begin you might want to get some background information about what we are going to do. Take a look at this excellent Youtube video that explains topics such a OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect in an easy to understand format:

Create an application in Azure AD

The first step is to create a new application registration. You can do this from In Azure Active Directory, select App registrations or use the new App registrations (Preview) experience.

For single page applications (SPAs), the application type should be Web app / API. As the App ID URI and Home page URL, I used

In my app, a user will authenticate to Azure AD with a Login button. Clicking that button brings the user to a Microsoft hosted page that asks for credentials:

Providing user credentials

Naturally, this implies that the authentication process, when finished, needs to find its way back to the application. In that process, it will also bring along the obtained authentication token. To configure this, specify the Reply URLs. If you also develop on your local machine, include the local URL of the app as well:

Reply URLs of the registered app

For a SPA, you need to set an additional option in the application manifest (via the Manifest button):

"oauth2AllowImplicitFlow": true

This implicit flow is well explained in the above video and also here.

This is basically all you have to do for this specific application. In other cases, you might want to grant access from this application to other applications such as an API. Take a look at this post for more information about calling the Graph API or your own API.

We will just present the token obtained by the client to API Management. In turn, API Management will verify the token. If it does not pass the verification steps, a 401 error will be returned. We will look at API Management in a later post.

A bit of client code

Just browse to and view the source. Authentication is performed with ADAL for Javascript. ADAL stands for the Active Directory Authentication Library. The library is loaded with from the CDN.

This is a simple Vue application so we have a Vue instance for data and methods. In that Vue instance data, authContext is setup via a call to new AuthenticationContext. The clientId is the Application ID of the registered app we created above:

authContext: new AuthenticationContext({ 
clientId: '1fc9093e-8a95-44f8-b524-45c5d460b0d8',
postLogoutRedirectUri: window.location

To authenticate, the Login button’s click handler calls authContext.login(). The login method uses a redirect. It is also possible to use a pop-up window by setting popUp: true in the object passed to new AuthenticationContext() above. Personally, I do not like that approach though.

In the created lifecycle hook of the Vue instance, there is some code that handles the callback. When not in the callback, getCachedUser() is used to check if the user is logged in. If she is, the token is obtained via acquireToken() and stored in the token variable of the Vue instance. The acquireToken() method allows the application to obtain tokens silently without prompting the user again. The first parameter of acquireToken is the same application ID of the registered app.

Note that the token (an ID token) is not encrypted. You can paste the token in and look inside. Here’s an example (click to navigate):

Calling the back-end API

In this application, the calls go to API Management. Here is an example of a call with axios:''                             + this.createrg.rg , null, this.getAxiosConfig(this.token)) 
.then(function(result) {
console.log("Got response...")
self.response =;
.catch(function(error) {
console.log("Error calling webhook: " + error)

The third parameter is a call to getAxiosConfig that passes the token. getAxiosConfig uses the token to create the Authorization header:

getAxiosConfig: function(token) { 
const config = {
headers: {
"authorization": "bearer " + token
return config

As discussed earlier, the call goes to API Management which will verify the token before allowing a call to webhookd.


With the source of and this post, it should be fairly straightforward to enable Azure AD Authentication in a simple single page web application. Note that the code is kept as simple as possible and does not cover any edge cases. In a next post, we will take a look at API Management.

Azure Front Door in front of a static website

In the previous post, I wrote about hosting a simple static website on an Azure Storage Account. To enable a custom URL such as, you can add Azure CDN. If you use the Verizon Premium tier, you can configure rules such as a http to https redirect rule. This is similar to hosting static sites in an Amazon S3 bucket with Amazon CloudFront although it needs to be said that the http to https redirect is way simpler to configure there.

On Twitter, Karim Vaes reminded me of the Azure Front Door service, which is currently in preview. The tagline of the Azure Front Door service is clear: “scalable and secure entry point for fast delivery of your global applications”.

Azure Front Door Service Preview

The Front Door service is quite advanced and has features like global HTTP load balancing with instant failover, SSL offload, application acceleration and even application firewalling and DDoS protection. The price is lower that the Verizon Premium tier of Azure CDN. Please note that preview pricing is in effect at this moment.

Configuring a Front Door with the portal is very easy with the Front Door Designer. The screenshot below shows the designer for the same website as the previous post but for a different URL:

Front Door Designer

During deployment, you create a name that ends in (here Afterwards you can add a custom name like in the above example. Similar to the Azure CDN, Front Door will give you a Digicert issued certificate if you enable HTTPS and choose Front Door managed:

Front Door managed SSL certificate

Naturally, the backend pool will refer to the https endpoint of the static website of your Azure Storage Account. I only have one such endpoint, but I could easily add another copy and start load balancing between the two.

In the routing rule, be sure you select the frontend host that matches the custom domain name you set up in the frontend hosts section:

Routing rule

It is still not as easy as in CloudFront to redirect http to https. For my needs, I can allow both http and https to Front Door and redirect in the browser:

if(window.location.href.substr(0,5) !== 'https'){
window.location.href = window.location.href.replace('http', 'https');

Not as clean as I would like it but it does the job for now. I can now access via Front Door!

Using the Microsoft Face API to detect emotions in photos and video

In a previous post, I blogged about detecting emotions with the ONNX FER+ model. As an alternative, you can use cloud models hosted by major cloud providers such as Microsoft, Amazon and Google. Besides those, there are many other services to choose from.

To detect facial emotions with Azure, there is a Face API in two flavours:

  • Cloud: API calls are sent to a cloud-hosted endpoint in the selected deployment region
  • Container: API calls are sent to a container that you deploy anywhere, including the edge (e.g. IoT Edge device)

To use the container version, you need to request access via this link. In another blog post, I already used the Text Analytics container to detect sentiment in a piece of text.

Note that the container version is not free and needs to be configured with an API key. The API key is obtained by deploying the Face API in the cloud. Doing so generates a primary and secondary key. Be aware that the Face API container, like the Text Analytics container, needs connectivity to the cloud to ensure proper billing. It cannot be used in completely offline scenarios. In short, no matter the flavour you use, you need to deploy the Face API. It will appear in the portal as shown below:

Deployed Face API (part of Cognitive Services)

Using the API is a simple matter. An image can be delivered to the API in two ways:

  • Link: just provide a URL to an image
  • Octet-stream: POST binary data (the image’s bytes) to the API

In the Go example you can find on GitHub, the second approach is used. You simply open the image file (e.g. a jpg or png) and pass the byte array to the endpoint. The endpoint is in the following form for emotion detection:

Instead of emotion, you can ask for other attributes or a combination of attributes: age, gender, headPose, smile, facialHair, glasses, emotion, hair, makeup, occlusion, accessories, blur, exposure and noise. You simply add them together with +’s (e.g. emotion+age+gender). When you add attributes, the cost per call will increase slightly as will the response time. With the additional attributes, the Face API is much more useful than the simple FER+ model. The Face API has several additional features such as storing and comparing faces. Check out the documentation for full details.

To detect emotion in a video, the sample at contains some commented out code in the import section and around line 100 so you can use the Face API via the package’s GetEmotion() function instead of the GetEmotion() function in the code. Because we have the full webcam image and face in an OpenCV mat, some extra code is needed to serialize it to a byte stream in a format the Face API understands:

encodedImage, _ := gocv.IMEncode(gocv.JPEGFileExt, face)       
emotion, err = msface.GetEmotion(bytes.NewReader(encodedImage))

In the above example, the face region detected by OpenCV is encoded to a JPG format as a byte slice. The byte slice is simply converted to an io.Reader and handed to the GetEmotion() function in the msface package.

When you use the Face API to detect emotions in a video stream from a webcam (or a video file), you will be hitting the API quite hard. You will surely need the standard tier of the API which allows you to do 10 transactions per second. To add face and emotion detection to video, the solution discussed in Detecting Emotions in FER+ is a better option.