Certificates with Azure Key Vault and Nginx Ingress Controller

Let’s face it. If you deploy web applications and APIs of any sort, you need certificates. If you have been long enough in IT, there’s just no escape! In this article, we will take a look at getting a certificate from Azure Key Vault to Azure Kubernetes service. Next, we will use that certificate with Nginx Ingress Controller and check what happens when the certificate gets renewed.

If you are more into videos, check out the video below from my channel:

Video from https://youtube.com/geertbaeke


What do you need to following along?

  • Azure subscription: see https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/free/
  • Azure Key Vault: see the quickstart to create it with the Azure Portal
  • Azure Kubernetes Services (AKS): see the quickstart to deploy it via the portal
  • Azure CLI: see the installation options
  • Kubectl: the Kubernetes administration tool; check the installation instructions here; use a package manager such as brew of choco to easily install it
  • Helm: required to install Helm charts; use a package manager such as brew of choco to install it; use v3 and higher

When AKS is up and running and you have authenticated with the Azure CLI using az login, get the credentials to AKS with:

az aks get-credentials -n <clustername> -g <resourcegroup>

We can now proceed to install nginx ingress controller.

Installing nginx ingress controller

Use the Helm chart to install nginx. First add the repo:

helm repo add https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx
helm repo update

Now install the chart:

helm install my-release ingress-nginx/ingress-nginx

More information can be found here: https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/deploy/. The Helm chart will result in an nginx pod on your cluster. It will use a Kubernetes service exposed via an Azure Public Load Balancer. Later, we will publish an application on our cluster via this endpoint. We will do that by creating a resource of kind Ingress.

The procedure below works equally well with an ingress controller on an internal IP address and potentially, internal DNS names and certificates. We just happen to use an external IP address and a self-signed certificate here.

Installing the akv2k8s controller

To sync a Key Vault certificate to Kubernetes, we need some extra software. You will often come across the secrets store CSI driver, which has a provider for Azure Key Vault. Although this works well and is probably the way forward in the future, I often use another solution that is just a bit easier to use: the Azure Key Vault to Kubernetes controller. Check out the documentation over at https://akv2k8s.io.

The controller can be configured to sync a certificate in Azure Key Vault to a secret of type kubernetes.io/tls. Normally, you would create such a secret with the following command:

kubectl create secret tls my-tls-secret --cert=path/to/cert/file --key=path/to/key/file

Indeed, you would need the certificate and private key files to create such a secret. The akv2k8s controller does that work for you, grabbing the certificate and private key from Key Vault. Do note that what we are doing here is creating a regular Kubernetes secret. Such a secret contains the certificate and key in base64 encoded format. Anyone with the proper access rights on your cluster can easily decode the secret and use it as they please. Check out the following document about the risks of regular secrets in Kubernetes.

To install the controller, see https://akv2k8s.io/installation/installing-with-helm.

Creating the certificate in Key Vault

There are many ways to generate certificates and store them in Key Vault. In general, you should automate as much as possible especially when it comes to renewing the certificate. However, this post focuses on getting a certificate to Kubernetes. That is the reason why we will generate a self-signed certificate in Key Vault.

In your Key Vault, navigate to Certificates and click Generate/Import:

Certificates in Key Vault

In Create a certificate, fill in the blanks. If you want to use a real domain, make sure you specify it in the DNS Names. I used test.baeke.info with a validity of 12 months. The content type can either be PKCS #12 or PEM. The akv2k8s controller can handle both formats.

New self-signed certificate

After clicking Create and refreshing the list a few times, you should see the certificate listed:

mycert lis in the list

Note: in what follows, I will use the nginx certificate in the list; it was created in the same way although it is valid for 24 months

Access Policy

The akv2k8s controller needs access to your Key Vault to retrieve the certificate. It used the service principal or managed identity of the cluster to do so. My cluster was setup with managed identity. You can retrieve the identity with the Azure CLI:

az aks show -n <clustername> -g <resourcegroup> | jq .identityProfile.kubeletidentity.objectId -r

jq is a tool to parse JSON content. We use it here to retrieve the objectId of the managed identity. Once you have the objectId, you can grant it the required access rights:

az keyvault set-policy --name <KeyVault> --object-id  <objectId> --certificate-permissions get

The above Azure CLI command gives the objectId of our managed identity access to retrieve certificates from the specified Key Vault. You can use the short name of the Key Vault in –name.

Syncing the certificate

With the controller installed and granted sufficient access rights, we can now instruct it to sync the certificate. We do so with the following YAML:

apiVersion: spv.no/v1
kind: AzureKeyVaultSecret
  name: cert-sync
  namespace: certsync
    name: gebakv
      name: nginx
      type: certificate
      name: nginx-cert
      type: kubernetes.io/tls

Note that all the resources I deploy from now are in the certsync namespace. The above YAML is pretty clear: it syncs the nginx certificate in Key Vault to a Kubernetes secret called nginx-cert. The type of the secret is kubernetes.io/tls. After synchronization, it will appear in the namespace:

NAME                  TYPE                                  DATA   AGE
nginx-cert            kubernetes.io/tls                     2      19s

On my system, I have installed the krew view-cert plugin. The command kubectl view-cert in the namespace certsync results in the following output (it enumerates all certs as a JSON array but there is only one):

        "SecretName": "nginx-cert",
        "Namespace": "certsync",
        "Version": 3,
        "SerialNumber": "15fd15ed11384d31a0a21f96f5e457c6",
        "Issuer": "CN=test.baeke.info",
        "Validity": {
            "NotBefore": "2020-12-05T14:09:53Z",
            "NotAfter": "2022-12-05T14:19:53Z"
        "Subject": "CN=test.baeke.info",
        "IsCA": false

When I check the serial number in Key Vault, it matches with the serial number above. The certificate is valid for two years.

Using the secret with nginx-ingress

In the certsync namespace, I installed a simple app that uses a service called realtime. We will expose that service on the Internet via the nginx ingress controller (version v0.41.2; image k8s.gcr.io/ingress-nginx/controller). We use the following Ingress definition:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
  name: testingress
  namespace: certsync
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: nginx
  - hosts:
    - test.baeke.info
    secretName: nginx-cert
  - host: test.baeke.info
      - path: /
          serviceName: realtime
          servicePort: 80

Important: my Kubernetes version is 1.18.8 so the above definition is still valid; for 1.19, check the docs

The above creates an ingress for test.baeke.info and requires tls with the certificate in the nginx-cert secret. After a while, you will see the address and ports the ingress uses. Use kubectl get ingress to check:

NAME          CLASS    HOSTS             ADDRESS       PORTS     AGE
testingress   <none>   test.baeke.info   80, 443   41s

At https://test.baeke.info, the following certificate is offered:

Self-signed certificate offered by nginx ingress for test.baeke.info

Note: you need to ensure the FQDN (test.baeke.info here) resolves to the IP of the ingress; on my cluster this is done automatically by external dns. Note that the certificate is valid for two years.

Renewing the certificate

While the renewal process can be configured to be automatic, we will configure a new certificate from Azure Key Vault. Just navigate to your certificate and click New Version:

Creating a new version of the certificate

In the screen that follows, you can adjust the settings of the new certificate. I changed the lifetime back to 12 months. When you save your changes, the akv2k8s controller will pick up the change and modify the certificate in the Kubernetes secret. It will not delete and create a new secret. With kubectl view-cert, I now get the following output:

        "SecretName": "nginx-cert",
        "Namespace": "certsync",
        "Version": 3,
        "SerialNumber": "27f95965e2644e0a58a878bc8a86f7d",
        "Issuer": "CN=test.baeke.info",
        "Validity": {
            "NotBefore": "2020-12-07T09:05:27Z",
            "NotAfter": "2021-12-07T09:15:27Z"
        "Subject": "CN=test.baeke.info",
        "IsCA": false

The serial number has changed. You can also see that the validity period has changed to 12 months.

What about our ingress?

Nginx ingress controller is smart enough to detect the changed certificate and offer it to clients. I used SHIFT-F5 to refresh the page and ingore cached content. Here is the offered certificate:

New certificate with 12 month lifetime


When you work with certificates in Kubernetes, always automate as much as possible. You can do that with a solution such as cert-manager that can request certificates dynamically (e.g. from Let’s Encrypt). In many other cases though, there are other certificate management practices in place that might prevent you from using a tool like cert-manager. In that case, try to get the certificates into a system like Key Vault and create your automation from there.

Adding Authentication and Authorization to an Azure Static Web App

In a previous post, we created a static web app that retrieves documents from Cosmos DB via an Azure Function. The Azure Function got deployed automatically and runs off the same domain as your app. In essence, that frees you from having to setup Azure Functions separately and configuring CORS in the process.

Instead of allowing anonymous users to call the api at https://yourwebapp/api/device, I only want to allow specific users to do so. In this post, we will explore how that works.

You can find the source code of the static web app and the API on GitHub: https://github.com/gbaeke/az-static-web-app.

More into video tutorials? Then check out the video below. I recommend 1.2x speed! 😉

Full version about creating the app and protecting the API

Create a routes.json

To define the protected routes, you need routes.json in the root of your project:

routes.json to protect /api/*

The routes.json file serves multiple purposes. Check out how it works here. In my case, I just want to protect the /api/* routes and allow the Authenticated users role. The Authenticated role is a built-in role but you should create custom roles to protect sensitive data (more info near the end of this post). For our purposes, the platform error override is not needed and be removed. These overrides are useful though as they allow you to catch errors and act accordingly.

Push the above change to your repository for routes.json to go in effect. Once you do, access to /api/* requires authentication. Without it, you will get a 401 Unauthorized error. To fix that, invite your users and define roles.

Inviting Users

In Role Management, you can invite individual users to your app:

User gbaeke (via GitHub) user identity added

Just click Invite and fill in the blanks. Inviting a user results in an invitation link you should send the user. Below is an example for my Twitter account:

Let’s invite myself via my Twitter account

When I go to the invite link, I can authorize the app:

Authorizing Static Web Apps to access my account

After this, you will also get a Consent screen:

Granting Consent (users can always remove their data later; yeah right 😉)

When consent is given, the application will open with authentication. I added some code to the HTML page to display when the user is authenticated. The user name can be retrieved with a call to .auth/me (see later).

App with Twitter handle shown

In the Azure Portal, the Twitter account is now shown as well.

User added to roles of the web app

Note: anyone can actually authenticate to your app; you do not have to invite them; you invite users only when you want to assign them custom roles

Simple authentication code

The HTML code in index.html contains some links to login and logout:

  • To login: a link to /.auth/login/github
  • To logout: a link to /.auth/logout

Microsoft provides these paths under /.auth automatically to support the different authentication scenarios. In my case, I only have a GitHub login. To support Twitter or Facebook logins, I would need to provide some extra logic for the user to choose the provider.

In the HTML, the buttons are shown/hidden depending on the existence of user.UserDetails. The user information is retrieved via a call to the system-provided /.auth/me with the code below that uses fetch:

async  getUser() {
     const response = await fetch("/.auth/me");
     const payload = await response.json();
     const { clientPrincipal } = payload;
     this.user = clientPrincipal;

user.UserDetails is just the username on the platform: gbaeke on GitHub, geertbaeke on Twitter, etc…

The combination of the routes.json file that protects /api/* and the authentication logic above results in the correct retrieval of the Cosmos DB documents. Note that when you are not authorized, the list is just empty with a 401 error in the console. In reality, you should catch the error and ask the user to authenticate.

One way of doing so is redirecting to a login page. Just add logic to routes.json that serves the path you want to use when the errorType is Unauthenticated as shown below:

"platformErrorOverrides": [
      "errorType": "NotFound",
      "serve": "/custom-404.html"
      "errorType": "Unauthenticated",
      "serve": "/login"

The danger of the Authenticated role

Above, we used the Authenticated role to provide access to the /api/* routes. That is actually not a good idea once you realize that non-invited users can authenticate to your app as well. As a general rule: always use a custom role to allow access to sensitive resources. Below, I changed the role in routes.json to reader. Now you can invite users and set their role to reader to make sure that only invited users can access the API!

"routes": [
        "route": "/api/*",
        "allowedRoles": ["reader"]


Below you can clearly see the effect of this. I removed GitHub user gbaeke from the list of users but I can still authenticate with the account. Because I am missing the reader role, the drop down list is not populated and a 401 error is shown:

Authenticated but not in the reader role


In this post, we looked at adding authentication and authorization to protect calls to our Azure Functions API. Azure Static Web Apps tries to make that process as easy as possible and we all now how difficult authentication and authorization can be in reality! And remember: protect sensitive API calls with custom roles instead of the built-in Authenticated role.

First Look at Azure Static Web Apps

Note: part 2 looks at the authentication and authorization part.

At Build 2020, Microsoft announced Azure Static Web Apps, a new way to host static web apps on Azure. In the past, static web apps, which are just a combination of HTML, JavaScript and CSS, could be hosted in a Storage Account or a regular Azure Web App.

When you compare Azure Static Web Apps with the Storage Account approach, you will notice there are many more features. Some of those features are listed below (also check the docs):

  • GitHub integration: GitHub actions are configured for you to easily deploy your app from your GitHub repository to Azure Static Web Apps
  • Integrated API support: APIs are provided by Azure Functions with an HTTP Trigger
  • Authentication support for Azure Active Directory, GitHub and other providers
  • Authorization role definitions via the portal and a roles.json file in your repository
  • Staging versions based on a pull request

It all works together as shown below:

Azure Static Web Apps (from https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/azure-app-service/introducing-app-service-static-web-apps/ba-p/1394451)

As a Netlify user, this type of functionality is not new to me. Next to static site hosting, they also provide serverless functions, identity etc…

If you are more into video tutorials…

Creating the app and protecting calls to the API

Let’s check out an example to see how it works on Azure…

GitHub repository

The GitHub repo I used is over at https://github.com/gbaeke/az-static-web-app. You will already see the .github/workflows folder that contains the .yml file that defines the GitHub Actions. That folder will be created for you when you create the Azure Static Web App.

The static web app in this case is a simple index.html that contains HTML, JavaScript and some styling. Vue.js is used as well. When you are authenticated, the application reads a list of devices from Cosmos DB. When you select a device, the application connects to a socket.io server, waiting for messages from the chosen device. The backend for the messages come from Redis. Note that the socket.io server and Redis configuration are not described in this post. Here’s a screenshot from the app with a message from device01. User gbaeke is authenticated via GitHub. When authenticated, the device list is populated. When you log out, the device list is empty. There’s no error checking here so when the device list cannot be populated, you will see a 404 error in the console. 😉

Azure Static Web App in action

Note: Azure Static Web Apps provides a valid certificate for your app, whether it uses a custom domain or not; in the above screenshot, Not secure is shown because the application connects to the socket.io server over HTTP and Mixed Content is allowed; that is easy to fix with SSL for the socket.io server but I chose to not configure that


Although API is probably too big a word for it, the devices drop down list obtains its data from Cosmos DB, via an Azure Function. It was added from Visual Studio Code as follows:

  • add the api folder to your project
  • add a new Function Project and choose the api folder: simply use F1 in Visual Studio Code and choose Azure Functions: Create New Project… You will be asked for the folder. Choose api.
  • modify the code of the Function App to request data from Cosmos DB

To add an Azure Function in Visual Studio Code, make sure you install the Azure Functions extension and the Azure Function Core Tools. I installed the Linux version of Core Tools in WSL 2.

Adding the function (JavaScript; HTTP Trigger, anonymous, name of GetDevice) should result in the following structure:

Function app as part of the static web app (api folder)

Next, I modified function.json to include a Cosmos DB input next to the existing HTTP input and output:

  "bindings": [
      "authLevel": "anonymous",
      "type": "httpTrigger",
      "direction": "in",
      "name": "req",
      "methods": [
      "route": "device"
      "type": "http",
      "direction": "out",
      "name": "res"
      "name": "devices",
      "type": "cosmosDB",
      "direction": "in",
      "databaseName": "geba",
      "collectionName": "devices",
      "sqlQuery": "SELECT c.id, c.room FROM c",
      "connectionStringSetting": "CosmosDBConnection"    

In my case, I have a Cosmos DB database geba with a devices collection. Device documents contain an id and room field which simply get selected with the query: SELECT c.id, c.room FROM c.

Note: with route set to device, the API will need to be called with /api/device instead of /api/GetDevice.

The actual function in index.js is kept as simple as possible:

module.exports = async function (context, req) {
    context.log('Send devices from Cosmos');
    context.res = {
        // status: 200, /* Defaults to 200 */
        body: context.bindings.devices

Yes, the above code is all that is required to retrieve the JSON output of the Cosmos DB query and set is as the HTTP response.

Note that local.settings.json contains the Cosmos DB connection string in CosmosDBConnection:

  "IsEncrypted": false,
  "Values": {
    "AzureWebJobsStorage": "",
    "CosmosDBConnection": "AccountEndpoint=https://geba-cosmos.documents.a...;"

You will have to make sure the Cosmos DB connection string is made known to Azure Static Web App later. During local testing, local.settings.json is used to retrieve it. local.settings.json is automatically added to .gitignore to not push it to the remote repository.

Local Testing

We can test the app locally with the Live Server extension. But first, modify .vscode/settings.json and add a proxy for your api:

"liveServer.settings.proxy": {
        "enable": true,
        "baseUri": "/api",
        "proxyUri": ""

With the above setting, a call to /api via Live Server will be proxied to Azure Functions on your local machine. Note that the IP address refers to the IP address of WSL 2 on my Windows 10 machine. Find it by running ifconfig in WSL 2.

Before we can test the application locally, start your function app by pressing F5. You should see:

Function App started locally

Now go to index.html, right click and select Open with Live Server. The populated list of devices shows that the query to Cosmos DB works and that the API is working locally:

Test the static web app and API locally

Notes on using WSL 2:

  • for some reason, http://localhost:5500/index.html (Live Server running in WSL 2) did not work from the Windows session although it should; in the screenshot above, you see I replaced localhost with the IP address of WSL 2
  • time skew can be an issue with WSL 2; if you get an error during the Cosmos DB query of authorization token is not valid at the current time, perform a time sync with ntpdate time.windows.com from your WSL 2 session

Deploy the Static Web App

Create a new Static Web App in the portal. The first screen will be similar to the one below:

Static Web App wizard first screen

You will need to authenticate to GitHub and choose your repository and branch as shown above. Click Next. Fill in the Build step as follows:

Static Web App wizard second screen

Our app will indeed run off the root. We are not using a framework that outputs a build to a folder like dist so you can leave the artifact location blank. We are just serving index.html off the root.

Complete the steps for the website to be created. You GitHub Action will be created and run for the first time. You can easily check the GitHub Action runs from the Overview screen:

Checking the GitHub Action runs

Here’s an example of a GitHub action run:

A GitHub Action run

When the GitHub Action is finished, your website will be available on a URL provided by Azure Static Web Apps. In my case: https://polite-cliff-01b6ab303.azurestaticapps.net.

To make sure the connection to Cosmos DB works, add an Application Setting via Configuration:

Adding the Cosmos DB connection string

The Function App that previously obtained the Cosmos DB connection string from local.settings.json can now retrieve the value from Application Settings. Note that you can also change these settings via Azure CLI.


In this post, we created a simple web app in combination with an function app that serves as the API. You can easily create and test the web app and function app locally with the help of Live Server and a Live Server proxy. Setting up the web app is easy via the Azure Portal, which also creates a GitHub Action that takes care of deployment for you. In a next post, we will take a look at enabling authentication via the GitHub identity provider and only allowing authorized users to retrieve the list of devices.

Front Door with WordPress on Azure App Service

Here’s a quick overview of the steps you need to take to put Front Door in front of an Azure Web App. In this case, the web app runs a WordPress site.

Step 1: DNS

Suppose you deployed the Web App and its name is gebawptest.azurewebsites.net and you want to reach the site via wp.baeke.info. Traffic will flow like this:

user types wp.baeke.info ---CNAME to xyz.azurefd.net--> Front Door --- connects to gebawptest.azurewebsites.net using wp.baeke.info host header

It’s clear that later, in Front Door, you will have to specify the host header (wp.baeke.info in this case). More on that later…

If you have worked with Azure Web App before, you probably know you need to configure the host header sent by the browser as a custom domain on the web app. Something like this:

Custom domain in Azure Web App (no https configured – hence the red warning)

In this case, we do not want to resolve wp.baeke.info to the web app but to Front Door. To make the custom domain assignment work (because the web app will verify the custom name), add the following TXT record to DNS:

TXT awverify.wp gebawptest.azurewebsites.net 

For example in CloudFlare:

awverify txt record in CloudFlare DNS

With the above TXT record, I could easily add wp.baeke.info as a custom domain to the gebawptest.azurewebsites.net web app.

Note: wp.baeke.info is a CNAME to your Front Door domain (see below)

Step 2: Front Door

My Front Door designer looks like this:

Front Door designer

When you create a Front Door, you need to give it a name. In my case that is gebafd.azurefd.net. With wp.baeke.info as a CNAME for gebafd.azurefd.net, you can easily add wp.baeke.info as an additional Frontend host.

The backend pool is the Azure Web App. It’s configured as follows:

Front Door backend host (only one in the pool); could also have used the Azure App Service backend type

You should connect to the web app using its original name but send wp.baeke.info as the host header. This allows Front Door to connect to the web app correctly.

The last part of the Front Door config is a simple rule that connects the frontend wp.baeke.info to the backend pool using HTTP only.

Step 3: WordPress config

With the default Azure WordPress templates, you do not need to modify anything because wp-config.php contains the following settings:

define('WP_SITEURL', 'http://' . $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] . '/');                                                        define('WP_HOME', 'http://' . $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] . '/');

If you want, you can change this to:

define('WP_SITEURL', 'http://wp.baeke.info/' );                                                                         define('WP_HOME', 'http://wp.baeke.info/');   

Step 4: Blocking access from other locations

In general, you want users to only connect to the site via Front Door. To achieve this, add the following access restrictions to the Web App:

Access restrictions to only allow traffic from Front Door and Azure basic infrastructure services

Back to basics: DNS ALIAS records

A few days ago, I had to map the domain inity.io to a Netlify domain. If you have only worked with DNS once in your life, you probably know about these two types of records:

With that knowledge in your bag, it would seem that a CNAME record is the way to map inity.io to somedomain.netlify.com. Sadly, that is not the case because CNAMEs cannot coexist with other records for the domain. In the case of the root or apex domain, there are existing records for the root domain such as the NS records.

An ALIAS record is one way of solving the issue. But before reading on, be sure to read this post: https://www.netlify.com/blog/2017/02/28/to-www-or-not-www/.

ALIAS record to the rescue

If your DNS provider supports ALIAS records, you are in luck. From a high level, an ALIAS record works like a CNAME record although there are several lower level differences we won’t all go into.

Since I use namecheap.com and they support ALIAS records, it was easy to map inity.io to somedomain.netlify.com:

Namecheap ALIAS record

The ALIAS record only supports a 1 or 5 minute TTL. The host is @ which represents the root domain. Notice I also redirect http://www.inity.io to the Netlify domain with a regular CNAME.

What does dig say?

Let’s look at what dig returns for both the ALIAS and CNAME record. Here’s the dig output for ALIAS (with some lines removed):

λ geba:~  dig inity.io

inity.io.               300     IN      A

The authoritative server does all the work here and returns the IP address directly to you. That does not happen for the CNAME:

λ geba:~  dig www.inity.io

www.inity.io.           1799    IN      CNAME   optimistic-panini-9caddc.netlify.com.
optimistic-panini-9caddc.netlify.com. 20 IN A

Some more work needs to be done here since you get back the CNAME record which then needs to be resolved to the IP address.

What about Azure and Front Door?

If you work with Front Door and want to map the root or apex domain to a Front Door frontend such as my.azurefd.net, the same issue arises. The Microsoft docs contain a good article explaining the concepts: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/frontdoor/front-door-how-to-onboard-apex-domain. From that document, you will learn that Azure DNS also supports “aliases” with an easy dropdown list to select your Front Door frontend host. If you want to use SSL for the frontend host, you will need to bring your own certificate because automatic certificates are not supported with APEX domains.

Note that you do not have to use Azure DNS. An ALIAS record at NameCheap or other providers would work equally well. CloudFlare also supports APEX domains via CNAME Flattening. Just don’t use GoDaddy. 😲

Building a real-time messaging server in Go

Often, I need a simple real-time server and web interface that shows real-time events. Although there are many options available like socket.io for Node.js or services like Azure SignalR and PubNub, I decided to create a real-time server in Go with a simple web front-end:

The impressive UI of the real-time web front-end

For a real-time server in Go, there are several options. You could use Gorilla WebSocket of which there is an excellent tutorial, and use native WebSockets in the browser. There’s also Glue. However, if you want to use the socket.io client, you can use https://github.com/googollee/go-socket.io. It is an implementation, although not a complete one, of socket.io. For production scenarios, I recommend using socket.io with Node.js because it is heavily used, has more features, better documentation, etc…

With that out of the way, let’s take a look at the code. Some things to note in advance:

  • the code uses the concept of rooms (as in a chat room); clients can join a room and only see messages for that room; you can use that concept to create a “room” for a device and only subscribe to messages for that device
  • the code use the excellent https://github.com/mholt/certmagic to enable https via a Let’s Encrypt certificate (DNS-01 verification)
  • the code uses Redis as the back-end; applications send messages to Redis via a PubSub channel; the real-time Go server checks for messages via a subscription to one or more Redis channels

The code is over at https://github.com/gbaeke/realtime-go.


Let’s start with the imports. Naturally we need Redis support, the actual go-socket.io packages and certmagic. The cloudflare package is needed because my domain baeke.info is managed by CloudFlare. The package gives certmagic the ability to create the verification record that Let’s Encrypt will check before issuing the certificate:

import (

socketio "github.com/googollee/go-socket.io"

Next, the code checks if the RTHOST environment variable is set. RTHOST should contain the hostname you request the certificate for (e.g. rt.baeke.info).

Let’s check the block of code that sets up the Redis connection.

// redis connection
client := redis.NewClient(&redis.Options{
Addr: getEnv("REDISHOST", "localhost:6379"),

// subscribe to all channels
pubsub := client.PSubscribe("*")
_, err := pubsub.Receive()
if err != nil {

// messages received on a Go channel
ch := pubsub.Channel()

First, we create a new Redis client. We either use the address in the REDISHOST environment variable or default to localhost:6379. I will later run this server on Azure Container Instances (ACI) in a multi-container setup that also includes Redis.

With the call to PSubscribe, a pattern subscribe is used to subscribe to all PubSub channels (*). If the subscribe succeeds, a Go channel is setup to actually receive messages on.

Now that the Redis connection is configured, let’s turn to socket.io:

server, err := socketio.NewServer(nil)
if err != nil {

server.On("connection", func(so socketio.Socket) {
log.Printf("New connection from %s ", so.Id())

so.On("channel", func(channel string) {
log.Printf("%s joins channel %s\n", so.Id(), channel)

so.On("disconnection", func() {
log.Printf("disconnect from %s\n", so.Id())

The above code is pretty simple. We create a new socket.io server and subsequently setup event handlers for the following events:

  • connection: code that runs when a web client connects; gives us the socket the client connects on which is further used by the channel and disconnection handler
  • channel: this handler runs when a client sends a message of the chosen type channel; the channel contains the name of the socket.io room to join; this is used by the client to indicate what messages to show (e.g. just for device01); in the browser, the client sends a channel message that contains the text “device01”
  • disconnection: code to run when the client disconnects from the socket

Naturally, something crucial is missing. We need to check Redis for messages in Redis channels and broadcast them to matching socket.io “channels”. This is done in a Go routine that runs concurrently with the main code:

 go func(srv *socketio.Server) {
   for msg := range ch {
      log.Println(msg.Channel, msg.Payload)
      srv.BroadcastTo(msg.Channel, "message", msg.Payload)

The anonymous function accepts a parameter of type socketio.Server. We use the BroadcastTo method of socketio.Server to broadcast messages arriving on the Redis PubSub channels to matching socket.io channels. Note that we send a message of type “message” so the client will have to check for “message” coming in as well. Below is a snippet of client-side code that does that. It adds messages to the messages array defined on the Vue.js app:

socket.on('message', function(msg){

The rest of the server code basically configures certmagic to request the Let’s Encrypt certificate and sets up the http handlers for the static web client and the socket.io server:

// certificate magic
certmagic.Agreed = true
certmagic.CA = certmagic.LetsEncryptStagingCA

cloudflare, err := cloudflare.NewDNSProvider()
if err != nil {

certmagic.DNSProvider = cloudflare

mux := http.NewServeMux()
mux.Handle("/socket.io/", server)
mux.Handle("/", http.FileServer(http.Dir("./assets")))

certmagic.HTTPS([]string{rthost}, mux)

Let’s try it out! The GitHub repository contains a file called multi.yaml, which deploys both the socket.io server and Redis to Azure Container Instances. The following images are used:

  • gbaeke/realtime-go-le: built with this Dockerfile; the image has a size of merely 14MB
  • redis: the official Redis image

To make it work, you will need to update the environment variables in multi.yaml with the domain name and your CloudFlare credentials. If you do not use CloudFlare, you can use one of the other providers. If you want to use the Let’s Encrypt production CA, you will have to change the code, rebuild the container, store it in your registry and modify multi.yaml accordingly.

In Azure Container Instances, the following is shown:

socket.io and Redis container in ACI

To test the setup, I can send a message with redis-cli, from a console to the realtime-redis container:

Testing with redis-cli in the Redis container

You should be aware that using CertMagic with ephemeral storage is NOT a good idea due to potential Let’s Encrypt rate limiting. You should store the requested certificates in persistent storage like an Azure File Share and mount it at /.local/share/certmagic!


The client is a Vue.js app. It was not created with the Vue cli so it just grabs the Vue.js library from the content delivery network (CDN) and has all logic in a single page. The socket.io library (v1.3.7) is also pulled from the CDN. The socket.io client code is kept at a minimum for demonstration purposes:

 var socket = io();
socket.on('message', function(msg){

When the page loads, the client emits a channel message to the server with a payload of device01. As you have seen in the server section, the server reacts to this message by joining this client to a socket.io room, in this case with name device01.

Whenever the client receives a message from the server, it adds the message to the messages array which is bound to a list item (li) with a v-for directive.

Surprisingly easy no? With a few lines of code you have a fully functional real-time messaging solution!

Azure API Management Consumption Tier

In the previous post, I talked about a personal application I use to deploy Azure resources to my lab subscription. The architecture is pretty straightforward:

After obtaining an id token from Azure Active directory (v1 endpoint), API calls go to API Management with the token in the authorization HTTP header.

API Management is available in several tiers:

API Management tiers

The consumption tier, with its 1.000.000 free calls per month per Azure subscription naturally is the best fit for this application. I do not need virtual network support or multi-region support or even Active Directory support. And I don’t want the invoice either! 😉 Note that the lack of Active Directory support has nothing to do with the ability to verify the validity of a JWT (JSON Web Token).

I created an instance in West Europe but it gave me errors while adding operations (like POSTs or GETs). It complained about reaching the 1000 operations limit. Later, I created an instance in North Europe which had no issues.

Define a product

A product contains one or more APIs and has some configuration such as quotas. You can read up on API products here. You can also add policies at the product level. One example of a policy is a JWT check, which is exactly what I needed. Another example is adding basic authentication to the outgoing call:

Policies at the product level

The first policy, authentication, configures basic authentication and gets the password from the BasicAuthPassword named value:

Named values in API Management

The second policy is the JWT check. Here it is in full:

JWT Policy

The policy checks the validity of the JWT and returns a 401 error if invalid. The openid-config url points to a document that contains useful information to validate the JWT, including a pointer to the public keys that can be used to verify the JWT’s signature (https://login.microsoftonline.com/common/discovery/keys). Note that I also check for the name claim to match mine.

Note that Active Directory is also configured to only issue a token to me. This is done via Enterprise Applications in https://aad.portal.azure.com.

Creating the API

With this out of the way, let’s take a look at the API itself:

Azure Deploy API and its defined operations

The operations are not very RESTful but they do the trick since they are an exact match with the webhookd server’s endpoints.

To not end up with CORS errors, All Operations has a CORS policy defined:

CORS policy at the All operations level

Great! The front-end can now authenticate to Azure AD and call the API exposed by API management. Each call has the Azure AD token (a JWT) in the authorization header so API Management van verify the token’s validity and pass along the request to webhookd.

With the addition of the consumption tier, it makes sense to use API Management in many more cases. And not just for smaller apps like this one!

Simple Azure AD Authentication in a single page application (SPA)

Adding Azure AD integration to a website is often confusing if you are just getting started. Let’s face it, not everybody has the opportunity to dig deep into such topics. For https://deploy.baeke.info, I wanted to enable Azure AD authentication so that only a select group of users in our AD tenant can call the back-end webhooks exposed by webhookd. The architecture of the application looks like this:

Client to webhook

The process is as follows:

  • Load the client from https://deploy.baeke.info
  • Client obtains a token from Azure Active Directory; the user will have to authenticate; in our case that means that a second factor needs to be provided as well
  • When the user performs an action that invokes a webhook, the call is sent to API Management
  • API Management verifies the token and passes the request to webhookd over https with basic authentication
  • The response is received by API Management which passes it unmodified to the client

I know you are an observing reader that is probably thinking: “why not present the token to webhookd?”. That’s possible but then I did not have a reason to use API Management! 😉

Before we begin you might want to get some background information about what we are going to do. Take a look at this excellent Youtube video that explains topics such a OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect in an easy to understand format:

Create an application in Azure AD

The first step is to create a new application registration. You can do this from https://aad.portal.azure.com. In Azure Active Directory, select App registrations or use the new App registrations (Preview) experience.

For single page applications (SPAs), the application type should be Web app / API. As the App ID URI and Home page URL, I used https://deploy.baeke.info.

In my app, a user will authenticate to Azure AD with a Login button. Clicking that button brings the user to a Microsoft hosted page that asks for credentials:

Providing user credentials

Naturally, this implies that the authentication process, when finished, needs to find its way back to the application. In that process, it will also bring along the obtained authentication token. To configure this, specify the Reply URLs. If you also develop on your local machine, include the local URL of the app as well:

Reply URLs of the registered app

For a SPA, you need to set an additional option in the application manifest (via the Manifest button):

"oauth2AllowImplicitFlow": true

This implicit flow is well explained in the above video and also here.

This is basically all you have to do for this specific application. In other cases, you might want to grant access from this application to other applications such as an API. Take a look at this post for more information about calling the Graph API or your own API.

We will just present the token obtained by the client to API Management. In turn, API Management will verify the token. If it does not pass the verification steps, a 401 error will be returned. We will look at API Management in a later post.

A bit of client code

Just browse to https://deploy.baeke.info and view the source. Authentication is performed with ADAL for Javascript. ADAL stands for the Active Directory Authentication Library. The library is loaded with from the CDN.

This is a simple Vue application so we have a Vue instance for data and methods. In that Vue instance data, authContext is setup via a call to new AuthenticationContext. The clientId is the Application ID of the registered app we created above:

authContext: new AuthenticationContext({ 
clientId: '1fc9093e-8a95-44f8-b524-45c5d460b0d8',
postLogoutRedirectUri: window.location

To authenticate, the Login button’s click handler calls authContext.login(). The login method uses a redirect. It is also possible to use a pop-up window by setting popUp: true in the object passed to new AuthenticationContext() above. Personally, I do not like that approach though.

In the created lifecycle hook of the Vue instance, there is some code that handles the callback. When not in the callback, getCachedUser() is used to check if the user is logged in. If she is, the token is obtained via acquireToken() and stored in the token variable of the Vue instance. The acquireToken() method allows the application to obtain tokens silently without prompting the user again. The first parameter of acquireToken is the same application ID of the registered app.

Note that the token (an ID token) is not encrypted. You can paste the token in https://jwt.ms and look inside. Here’s an example (click to navigate):

Calling the back-end API

In this application, the calls go to API Management. Here is an example of a call with axios:

axios.post('https://geba.azure-api.net/rg/create?rg='                             + this.createrg.rg , null, this.getAxiosConfig(this.token)) 
.then(function(result) {
console.log("Got response...")
self.response = result.data;
.catch(function(error) {
console.log("Error calling webhook: " + error)

The third parameter is a call to getAxiosConfig that passes the token. getAxiosConfig uses the token to create the Authorization header:

getAxiosConfig: function(token) { 
const config = {
headers: {
"authorization": "bearer " + token
return config

As discussed earlier, the call goes to API Management which will verify the token before allowing a call to webhookd.


With the source of https://deploy.baeke.info and this post, it should be fairly straightforward to enable Azure AD Authentication in a simple single page web application. Note that the code is kept as simple as possible and does not cover any edge cases. In a next post, we will take a look at API Management.

Azure Front Door in front of a static website

In the previous post, I wrote about hosting a simple static website on an Azure Storage Account. To enable a custom URL such as https://blog.baeke.info, you can add Azure CDN. If you use the Verizon Premium tier, you can configure rules such as a http to https redirect rule. This is similar to hosting static sites in an Amazon S3 bucket with Amazon CloudFront although it needs to be said that the http to https redirect is way simpler to configure there.

On Twitter, Karim Vaes reminded me of the Azure Front Door service, which is currently in preview. The tagline of the Azure Front Door service is clear: “scalable and secure entry point for fast delivery of your global applications”.

Azure Front Door Service Preview

The Front Door service is quite advanced and has features like global HTTP load balancing with instant failover, SSL offload, application acceleration and even application firewalling and DDoS protection. The price is lower that the Verizon Premium tier of Azure CDN. Please note that preview pricing is in effect at this moment.

Configuring a Front Door with the portal is very easy with the Front Door Designer. The screenshot below shows the designer for the same website as the previous post but for a different URL:

Front Door Designer

During deployment, you create a name that ends in azurefd.net (here geba.azurefd.net). Afterwards you can add a custom name like deploy.baeke.info in the above example. Similar to the Azure CDN, Front Door will give you a Digicert issued certificate if you enable HTTPS and choose Front Door managed:

Front Door managed SSL certificate

Naturally, the backend pool will refer to the https endpoint of the static website of your Azure Storage Account. I only have one such endpoint, but I could easily add another copy and start load balancing between the two.

In the routing rule, be sure you select the frontend host that matches the custom domain name you set up in the frontend hosts section:

Routing rule

It is still not as easy as in CloudFront to redirect http to https. For my needs, I can allow both http and https to Front Door and redirect in the browser:

if(window.location.href.substr(0,5) !== 'https'){
window.location.href = window.location.href.replace('http', 'https');

Not as clean as I would like it but it does the job for now. I can now access https://deploy.baeke.info via Front Door!

Static site hosting on Azure Storage with a custom domain and TLS

A while ago, I blogged about webhookd. It is an application, written in Go, that can easily convert a folder structure with shell scripts into webhooks. With the help of CertMagic, I modified the application to support Let’s Encrypt certificates. The application is hosted on an Azure Linux VM that uses a managed identity to easily allow scripts that use the Azure CLI to access my Azure subscription.

I also wrote a very simple Vue.js front-end application that can call these webhooks. It’s just an index.html, a 404.html and some CSS. The web page uses Azure AD authentication to an intermediary Azure Function that acts as some sort of proxy to the webhookd server.

Since a few weeks, Azure supports hosting static sites in an Azure Storage Account. Let’s take a look at how simple it is to host your files there and attach a custom DNS name and certificate via Azure CDN.

Enable static content on Storage Account

In your Azure Storage General Purpose v2 account, simply navigate to Static website, enable the feature and type the name of your index and error document:

When you click Save, the endpoint is shown. You will also notice the $web link to the identically named container. You will need to upload your files to that container using the portal, Storage Explorer or even the Azure CLI. With the Azure CLI, you can use this command:

az storage blob upload \
--container-name mystoragecontainer \
--name blobName \
--file ~/path/to/local/file

Custom domain and certificate

It’s great that I can access my site right away, but I want to use https://azdeploy.baeke.info instead of that name. To do that, create a CDN endpoint. In the storage account settings, find the Azure CDN option and create a new CDN profile and endpoint.

Important: in the settings, set the origin hostname to the primary endpoint you were given when you enabled the static website on the storage account

When the profile and endpoint is created, you can open it in the Azure Portal:

In your case, the custom domains list will still be empty at this point. You will have an new endpoint hostname (ending in azureedge.net) that gets its content from the origin hostname. You can browse to the endpoint hostname now as well.

Although the endpoint hostname is a bit better, I want to browse to this website with a custom domain name. Before we enable that, create a CNAME record in your DNS zone that maps to the endpoint hostname. In my case, in my CloudFlare DNS settings, I added a CNAME that maps azdeploy.baeke.info to gebastatic.azureedge.net. When that is finished, click + Custom Domain to add, well, your custom domain.

The only thing left to do is to add a certificate for your custom domain. Although you can add your own certificate, Azure CDN can also provide a certificate and completely automate the certificate management. Just make sure that your created the CNAME correctly and you should be good to go:

Custom certificate via Azure CDN

Above, I enabled the custom domain HTTPS feature and chose CDN Managed. Although it took a while for the certificate to be issued and copied to all points of presence (POPs), the process was flawless. The certificate is issued by Digicert:

Azure CDN certificate issued by Digicert

Some loose ends?

Great! I can now browse to https://azdeploy.baeke.info securely. Sadly, when you choose the Standard Microsoft CDN tier as the content delivery network, http to https redirection is not supported. The error when you browse to the http endpoint is definitely not pretty:

Users will probably think there is an error of some sorts. If you switch the CDN to Verizon Premium, you can create a redirection rule with the rules engine:

Premium Verizon Redirect Rule

When you add the above rule to the rules engine, it takes a few hours before it becomes active. Having to wait that long feels awkward in the age of instant gratification!


Being able to host your static website in Azure Storage greatly simplifies hosting both simple static websites as more advanced single page applications or SPAs. The CDN feature, including its automatic certificate management feature, adds additional flexibility.