Deploy and bootstrap your Kubernetes cluster with Azure DevOps and GitOps

A while ago, I published a post about deploying AKS with Azure DevOps with extras like Nginx Ingress, cert-manager and several others. An Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template is used to deploy Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS). The extras are installed with Helm charts and Helm installer tasks. I mainly use it for demo purposes but I often refer to it in my daily work as well.

Although this works, there is another approach that combines an Azure DevOps pipeline with GitOps. From a high level point of view, that works as follows:

  • Deploy AKS with an Azure DevOps pipeline: declarative and idempotent thanks to the ARM template; the deployment is driven from an Azure DevOps pipeline but other solutions such as GitHub Actions will do as well (push)
  • Use a GitOps tool to deploy the GitOps agents on AKS and bootstrap the cluster by pointing the GitOps tool to a git repository (pull)

In this post, I will use Flux v2 as the GitOps tool of choice. Other tools, such as Argo CD, are capable of achieving the same goal. Note that there are ways to deploy Kubernetes using GitOps in combination with the Cluster API (CAPI). CAPI is quite a beast so let’s keep this post a bit more approachable. 😉

Let’s start with the pipeline (YAML):

# AKS deployment pipeline
trigger: none

  GITHUB_REPO: 'k8s-bootstrap'

- stage: DeployGitOpsCluster
  - job: 'Deployment'
      vmImage: 'ubuntu-latest'
    - task: AzureResourceGroupDeployment@2
        azureSubscription: 'SUBSCRIPTION_REF'
        action: 'Create Or Update Resource Group'
        resourceGroupName: '$(RG)'
        location: 'YOUR LOCATION'
        templateLocation: 'Linked artifact'
        csmFile: 'aks/deploy.json'
        csmParametersFile: 'aks/deployparams.gitops.json'
        overrideParameters: '-clusterName $(CLUSTERNAME)'
        deploymentMode: 'Incremental'
        deploymentName: 'aks-gitops-deploy'
    - task: KubectlInstaller@0
      name: InstallKubectl
        kubectlVersion: '1.18.8'

    - task: AzureCLI@1
      name: RunAzCLIScripts
        azureSubscription: 'AzureMPN'
        scriptLocation: 'inlineScript'
        inlineScript: |
          export GITHUB_TOKEN=$(GITHUB_TOKEN)
          az aks get-credentials -g $(RG) -n $(CLUSTERNAME) --admin
          msi="$(az aks show -n CLUSTERNAME -g CLUSTER_RESOURCE_GROUP | jq .identityProfile.kubeletidentity.objectId -r)"
          az keyvault set-policy --name $(KEY_VAULT) --object-id $msi --secret-permissions get
          curl -s | sudo bash
          flux bootstrap github --owner=$(GITHUB_USER) --repository=$(GITHUB_REPO) --branch=main --path=demo-cluster --personal

A couple of things to note here:

  • The above pipeline contains several strings in UPPERCASE; replace them with your own values
  • GITHUB_TOKEN is a secret defined in the Azure DevOps pipeline and set as an environment variable in the last task; it is required for the flux bootstrap command to configure the GitHub repo (e.g. deploy key)
  • the AzureResourceGroupDeployment task deploys the AKS cluster based on parameters defined in deployparams.gitops.json; that file is in a private Azure DevOps git repo; I have also added them to the gbaeke/k8s-bootstrap repository for reference
  • The AKS deployment uses a managed identity versus a service principal with manually set client id and secret (recommended)
  • The flux bootstrap command deploys an Azure Key Vault to Kubernetes Secrets controller that requires access to Key Vault; the script in the last task retrieves the managed identity object id and uses az keyvault set-policy to grant get key permissions; if you delete and recreate the cluster many times, you will have several UNKNOWN access policies at the Key Vault level

The pipeline is of course short due to the fact that nginx-ingress, cert-manager, dapr, KEDA, etc… are all deployed via the gbaeke/k8s-bootstrap repo. The demo-cluster folder in that repo contains a source and four kustomizations:

  • source: reference to another git repo that contains the actual deployments
  • k8s-akv2k8s-kustomize.yaml: deploys the Azure Key Vault to Kubernetes Secrets controller (akv2k8s)
  • k8s-secrets-kustomize.yaml: deploys secrets via custom resources picked up by the akv2k8s controller; depends on akv2k8s
  • k8s-common-kustomize.yaml: deploys all components in the ./deploy folder of gbaeke/k8s-common (nginx-ingress, external-dns, cert-manager, KEDA, dapr, …)

Overall, the big picture looks like this:

Note that the kustomizations that point to ./akv2k8s and ./deploy actually deploy HelmReleases to the cluster. For instance in ./akv2k8s, you will find the following manifest:

kind: HelmRelease
  name: akv2k8s
  namespace: flux-system
      chart: akv2k8s
        kind: HelmRepository
        name: akv2k8s-repo
  interval: 5m0s
  releaseName: akv2k8s
  targetNamespace: akv2k8s

This manifest tells Flux to deploy a Helm chart, akv2k8s, from the HelmRepository source akv2k8s-repo that is defined as follows:

kind: HelmRepository
  name: akv2k8s-repo
  namespace: flux-system
  interval: 1m0s

It is perfectly valid to use a kustomization that deploys manifests that contain resources of kind HelmRelease and HelmRepository. In fact, you can even patch those via a kustomization.yaml file if you wish.

You might wonder why I deploy the akv2k8s controller first, and then deploy a secret with the following manifest (upercase strings to be replaced):

kind: AzureKeyVaultSecret
  name: secret-sync 
  namespace: flux-system
    name: KEYVAULTNAME # name of key vault
      name: SECRET # name of the akv object
      type: secret # akv object type
      name: SECRET # kubernetes secret name
      dataKey: values.yaml # key to store object value in kubernetes secret

The external-dns chart I deploy in later steps requires configuration to be able to change DNS settings in Cloudflare. Obviously, I do not want to store the Cloudflare secret in the k8s-common git repo. One way to solve that is to store the secrets in Azure Key Vault and then grab those secrets and convert them to Kubernetes secrets. The external-dns HelmRelease can then reference the secret to override values.yaml of the chart. Indeed, that requires storing a file in Key Vault which is easy to do like so (replace uppercase strings):

az keyvault secret set --name SECRETNAME --vault-name VAULTNAME --file ./YOURFILE.YAML

You can call the secret what you want but the Kubernetes secret dataKey should be values.yaml for the HelmRelease to work properly.

There are other ways to work with secrets in GitOps. The Flux v2 documentation mentions SealedSecrets and SOPS and you are of course welcome to use that.

Take a look at the different repos I outlined above to see the actual details. I think it makes the deployment of a cluster and bootstrapping the cluster much easier compared to suing a bunch of Helm install tasks and manifest deployments in the pipeline. What do you think?

An introduction to Flux v2

If you have read my blog and watched my Youtube channel, you know I have worked with Flux in the past. Flux, by weaveworks, is a GitOps Kubernetes Operator that ensures that your cluster state matches the desired state described in a git repository. There are other solutions as well, such as Argo CD.

With Flux v2, GitOps on Kubernetes became a lot more powerful and easier to use. Flux v2 is built on a set of controllers and APIs called the GitOps Toolkit. The toolkit contains the following components:

  • Source controller: allows you to create sources such as a GitRepository or a HelmRepository; the source controller acts on several custom resource definitions (CRDs) as defined in the docs
  • Kustomize controller: runs continuous delivery pipelines defined with Kubernetes manifests (YAML) files; although you can use kustomize and define kustomization.yaml files, you do not have to; internally though, Flux v2 uses kustomize to deploy your manifests; the kustomize controller acts on Kustomization CRDs as defined here
  • Helm controller: deploy your workloads based on Helm charts but do so declaratively; there is no need to run helm commands; see the docs for more information
  • Notification controller: responds to incoming events (e.g. from a git repo) and sends outgoing events (e.g. to Teams or Slack); more info here

If you throw it all together, you get something like this:

GitOps Toolkit components that make up Flux v2 (from

Getting started

To get started, you should of course look at the documentation over at I also created a series of videos about Flux v2. The first one talks about Flux v2 in general and shows how to bootstrap a cluster.

Part 1 in the series about Flux v2

Although Flux v2 works with other source control systems than GitHub, for instance GitLab, I use GitHub in the above video. I also use kind, to make it easy to try out Flux v2 on your local machine. In subsequent videos, I use Azure Kubernetes Services (AKS).

In Flux v2, it is much easier to deploy Flux on your cluster with the flux bootstrap command. Flux v2 itself is basically installed and managed via GitOps principles by pushing all Flux v2 manifests to a git repository and running reconciliations to keep the components running as intended.


Flux v1 already supported kustomize but v2 takes it to another level. Whenever you want to deploy to Kubernetes with YAML manifests, you will create a kustomization, which is based on the Kustomization CRD. A kustomization is defined as below:

kind: Kustomization
  name: realtimeapp-dev
  namespace: flux-system
  - kind: Deployment
    name: realtime-dev
    namespace: realtime-dev
  - kind: Deployment
    name: redis-dev
    namespace: realtime-dev
  interval: 1m0s
  path: ./deploy/overlays/dev
  prune: true
    kind: GitRepository
    name: realtimeapp-infra
  timeout: 2m0s
  validation: client

A kustomization requires a source. In this case, the source is a git repository called realtimeapp-infra that was already defined in advance. The source just points to a public git repository on Github:

The source contains a deploy folder, which contains a bases and an overlays folder. The kustomization points to the ./deploy/overlays/dev folder as set in path. That folder contains a kustomization.yaml file that deploys an application in a development namespace and uses the base from ./deploy/bases/realtimeapp as its source. If you are not sure what kustomize exactly does, I made a video that tries 😉 to explain it:

An introduction to kustomize

It is important to know that you do not need to use kustomize in your source files. If you point a Flux v2 kustomization to a path that just contains a bunch of YAML files, it will work equally well. You do not have to create a kustomization.yaml file in that folder that lists the resources (YAML files) that you want to deploy. Internally though, Flux v2 will use kustomize to deploy the manifests and uses the deployment order that kustomize uses: first namespaces, then services, then deployments, etc…

The interval in the kustomization (above set at 1 minute) means that your YAML files are applied at that interval, even if the source has not changed. This ensures that, if you modified resources on your cluster, the kustomization will reset the changes to the state as defined in the source. The source itself has its own interval. If you set a GitRepository source to 1 minute, the source is checked every 1 minute. If the source has changes, the kustomizations that depend on the source will be notified and proceed to deploy the changes.

A GitRepository source can refer to a specific branch, but can also refer to a semantic versioning tag if you use a semver range in the source. See checkout strategies for more information.

Deploying YAML manifests

If the above explanation of sources and kustomizations does not mean much to you, I created a video that illustrates these aspects more clearly:

In the above video, the source that points to gets created first (see it at this mark). Next, I create two kustomizations, one for development and one for production. I use a kustomize base for the application plus two overlays, one for dev and one for production.

What to do when the app container images changes?

Flux v1 has a feature that tracks container images in a container registry and updates your cluster resources with a new image based on a filter you set. This requires read/write access to your git repository because Flux v1 set the images in your source files. Flux v2 does not have this feature yet (November 2020, see

In my example, I use a GitHub Action in the application source code repository to build and push the application image to Docker Hub. The GitHub action triggers a build job on two events:

  • push to main branch: build a container image with a short sha as the tag (e.g. gbaeke/flux-rt:sha-94561cb
  • published release: build a container image with the release version as the tag (e.g. gbaeke/flux-rt:1.0.1)

When the build is caused by a push to main, the update-dev-image job runs. It modifies kustomization.yaml in the dev overlay with kustomize edit:

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    if: contains(github.ref, 'heads')
    - build
    - uses: imranismail/setup-kustomize@v1
        kustomize-version: 3.8.6
    - run: git clone https://${REPO_TOKEN} .
        REPO_TOKEN: ${{secrets.REPO_TOKEN}}
    - run: kustomize edit set image gbaeke/flux-rt:sha-$(git rev-parse --short $GITHUB_SHA)
      working-directory: ./deploy/overlays/dev
    - run: git add .
    - run: |
        git config "$EMAIL"
        git config "$GITHUB_ACTOR"
        EMAIL: ${{secrets.EMAIL}}
    - run: git commit -m "Set dev image tag to short sha"
    - run: git push

Similarly, when the build is caused by a release, the image is updated in the production overlay’s kustomization.yaml file.


If you are interested in GitOps as an alternative for continuous delivery to Kubernetes, do check out Flux v2 and see if it meets your needs. I personally like it a lot and believe that they are setting the standard for GitOps on Kubernetes. I have not covered Helm deployments, monitoring and alerting features yet. I will create additional videos and posts about those features in the near future. Stay tuned!

Deploy AKS with Nginx, External DNS, Helm Operator and Flux

A while ago, I blogged about an Azure YAML pipeline to deploy AKS together with Traefik. As a variation on that theme, this post talks about deploying AKS together with Nginx, External DNS, a Helm Operator and Flux CD. I blogged about Flux before if you want to know what it does.

Video version (1.5x speed recommended)

I added the Azure DevOps pipeline to the existing GitHub repo, in the nginx-dns-helm-flux folder.

Let’s break the pipeline down a little. In what follows, replace AzureMPN with a reference to your own subscription. The first two tasks, AKS deployment and IP address deployment are ARM templates that deploy these resources in Azure. Nothing too special there. Note that the AKS cluster is one with default networking, no Azure AD integration and without VMSS (so no multiple node pools either).

Note: I modified the pipeline to deploy a VMSS-based cluster with a standard load balancer, which is recommended instead of a cluster based on an availability set with a basic load balancer.

The third task takes the output of the IP address deployment and parses out the IP address using jq (last echo statement on one line):

task: Bash@3
      name: GetIP
        targetType: 'inline'
        script: |
          echo "##vso[task.setvariable variable=test-ip;]$(echo '$(armoutputs)' | jq .ipaddress.value -r)"

The IP address is saved in a variable test-ip for easy reuse later.

Next, we install kubectl and Helm v3. Indeed, Azure DevOps now supports installation of Helm v3 with:

- task: HelmInstaller@1
        helmVersionToInstall: 'latest'

Next, we need to run a script to achieve a couple of things:

  • Get AKS credentials with Azure CLI
  • Add Helm repositories
  • Install a custom resource definition (CRD) for the Helm operator

This is achieved with the following inline Bash script:

- task: AzureCLI@1
        azureSubscription: 'AzureMPN'
        scriptLocation: 'inlineScript'
        inlineScript: |
          az aks get-credentials -g $(aksTestRG) -n $(aksTest) --admin
          helm repo add stable
          helm repo add fluxcd
          helm repo update
          kubectl apply -f

Next, we create a Kubernetes namespace called fluxcd. I create the namespace with some inline YAML in the Kubernetes@1 task:

- task: Kubernetes@1
        connectionType: 'None'
        command: 'apply'
        useConfigurationFile: true
        configurationType: 'inline'
        inline: |
          apiVersion: v1
          kind: Namespace
            name: fluxcd

It’s best to use the approach above instead of kubectl create ns. If the namespace already exists, you will not get an error.

Now we are ready to deploy Nginx, External DNS, Helm operator and Flux CD


This is a pretty basic installation with the Azure DevOps Helm task:

- task: HelmDeploy@0
        connectionType: 'None'
        namespace: 'kube-system'
        command: 'upgrade'
        chartType: 'Name'
        chartName: 'stable/nginx-ingress'
        releaseName: 'nginx'
        overrideValues: 'controller.service.loadBalancerIP=$(test-ip),controller.publishService.enabled=true,controller.metrics.enabled=true'

For External DNS to work, I found I had to set controller.publishService.enabled=true. As you can see, the Nginx service is configured to use the IP we created earlier. Azure will create a load balancer with a front end IP configuration that uses this address. This all happens automatically.

Note: controller.metrics.enabled enables a Prometheus scraping endpoint; that is not discussed further in this blog

External DNS

External DNS can automatically add DNS records for ingresses and services you add to Kubernetes. For instance, if I create an ingress for, External DNS can create this record in the zone and use the IP address of the Ingress Controller (nginx here). Installation is pretty straightforward but you need to provide credentials to your DNS provider. In my case, I use CloudFlare. Many others are available. Here is the task:

- task: HelmDeploy@0
        connectionType: 'None'
        namespace: 'kube-system'
        command: 'upgrade'
        chartType: 'Name'
        chartName: 'stable/external-dns'
        releaseName: 'externaldns'
        overrideValues: 'cloudflare.apiToken=$(CFAPIToken)'
        valueFile: 'externaldns/values.yaml'

On CloudFlare, I created a token that has the required access rights to my zone (read, edit). I provide that token to the chart via the CFAPIToken variable defined as a secret on the pipeline. The valueFile looks like this:

  create: true

provider: cloudflare

logLevel: debug

  apiToken: CFAPIToken
  email: email address
  proxied: false

interval: "1m"

policy: sync # or upsert-only

domainFilters: [ '' ]

In the beginning, it’s best to set the logLevel to debug in case things go wrong. With interval 1m, External DNS checks for ingresses and services every minute and syncs with your DNS zone. Note that External DNS only touches the records it created. It does so by creating TXT records that provide a record that External DNS is indeed the owner.

With External DNS in place, you just need to create an ingress like below to have the A record created:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
  name: realtime-ingress
  annotations: nginx
  - host:
      - path: /
          serviceName: realtime
          servicePort: 80

Helm Operator

The Helm Operator allows us to install Helm chart by simply using a yaml file. First, we install the operator:

- task: HelmDeploy@0
      name: HelmOp
      displayName: Install Flux CD Helm Operator
        connectionType: 'None'
        namespace: 'kube-system'
        command: 'upgrade'
        chartType: 'Name'
        chartName: 'fluxcd/helm-operator'
        releaseName: 'helm-operator'
        overrideValues: 'extraEnvs[0].name=HELM_VERSION,extraEnvs[0].value=v3,,image.tag=helm-v3-dev-53b6a21d'
        arguments: '--namespace fluxcd'

This installs the latest version of the operator at the time of this writing (image.repository and image.tag) and also sets Helm to v3. With this installed, you can install a Helm chart by submitting files like below:

kind: HelmRelease
  name: influxdb
  namespace: default
  releaseName: influxdb
    name: influxdb
    version: 0.2.4

You can create files that use kind HelmRelease (HR) because we installed the Helm Operator CRD before. To check installed Helm releases in a namespace, you can run kubectl get hr.

The Helm operator is useful if you want to install Helm charts from a git repository with the help of Flux CD.

Flux CD

Deploy Flux CD with the following task:

- task: HelmDeploy@0
      name: FluxCD
      displayName: Install Flux CD
        connectionType: 'None'
        namespace: 'fluxcd'
        command: 'upgrade'
        chartType: 'Name'
        chartName: 'fluxcd/flux'
        releaseName: 'flux'
        overrideValues: '$(gitURL),git.pollInterval=1m'

The gitURL variable should be set to a git repo that contains your cluster configuration. For instance: gbaeke/demo-clu-flux. Flux will check the repo for changes every minute. Note that we are using a public repo here. Private repos and systems other than GitHub are supported.

Take a look at GitOps with Weaveworks Flux for further instructions. Some things you need to do:

  • Install fluxctl
  • Use fluxctl identity to obtain the public key from the key pair created by Flux (when you do not use your own)
  • Set the public key as a deploy key on the git repo
GitHub deploy key

By connecting the repo to Flux CD (as done here), the following is done based on the content of the repo (the complete repo is scanned:

  • Install InfluxDB Helm chart
  • Add a simple app that uses a Go implementation to provide realtime updates based on Redis channel content; this app is published via nginx and is created in DNS (by External DNS)
  • Adds a ConfigMap that is used to configure Azure Monitor to enable Prometheus endpoint scraping (to show this can be used for any object you need to add to Kubernetes)

Note that the ingress of the Go app has an annotation (in realtime.yaml, in the git repo) to issue a certificate via cert-manager. If you want to make that work, add an extra task to the pipeline that installs cert-manager:

- task: HelmDeploy@0
        connectionType: 'None'
        namespace: 'cert-manager'
        command: 'upgrade'
        chartType: 'Name'
        chartName: 'jetstack/cert-manager'
        releaseName: 'cert-manager'
        arguments: '--version v0.12.0'

You will also need to create another namespace, cert-manager, just like we created the fluxcd namespace.

In order to make the above work, you will need Issuers or ClusterIssuers. The repo used by Flux CD contains two ClusterIssuers, one for Let’s Encrypt staging and one for production. The ingress resource uses the production issuer due to the following annotation: "letsencrypt-prod" 

The Go app that is deployed by Flux now has TLS enabled by default:

https on the Go app

I often use this deployment in demo’s of all sorts. I hope it is helpful for you too in that way!

Streamlined Kubernetes Development with Draft

A longer time ago, I wrote a post about draft. Draft is a tool to streamline your Kubernetes development experience. It basically automates, based on your code, the creation of a container image, storing the image in a registry and installing a container based on that image using a Helm chart. Draft is meant to be used during the development process while you are still messing around with your code. It is not meant as a deployment mechanism in production.

The typical workflow is the following:

  • in the folder with your source files, run draft create
  • to build, push and install the container run draft up; in the background a Helm chart is used
  • to see the logs and connect to the app in your container over an SSH tunnel, run draft connect
  • modify your code and run draft up again
  • rinse and repeat…

Let’s take a look at how it works in a bit more detail, shall we?


Naturally, you need a Kubernetes cluster with kubectl, the Kubernetes cli, configured to use that cluster.

Next, install Helm on your system and install Tiller, the server-side component of Helm on the cluster. Full installation instructions are here. If your cluster uses rbac, check out how to configure the proper service account and role binding. Run helm init to initialize Helm locally and install Tiller at the same time.

Now install draft on your system. Check out the quickstart for installation instructions. Run draft init to initialize it.

Getting some source code

Let’s use a small Go program to play with draft. You can use the realtime-go repository. Clone it to your system and checkout the httponly branch:

git clone
git checkout httponly

You will need a redis server as a back-end for the realtime server. Let’s install that the quick and dirty way:

kubectl run redis --image=redis --replicas=1 
kubectl expose deploy/redis –port 6379  

Running draft create

In the realtime-go folder, run draft create. You should get the following output:

draft create output

The command tries to detect the language and it found several. In this case, because there is no pack for Coq (what is that? 😉) and HTML, it used Go. Knowing the language, draft creates a simple Dockerfile if there is no such file in the folder:

FROM golang

WORKDIR /go/src/app
COPY . .

RUN go get -d -v ./...
RUN go install -v ./...

CMD ["app"] 

Usually, I do not use the Dockerfile created by draft. If there already is a Dockerfile in the folder, draft will use that one. That’s what happened in our case because the folder contains a 2-stage Dockerfile.

Draft created some other files as well:

  • draft.toml: configuration file (more info); can be used to create environments like staging and production with different settings such as the Kubernetes namespace to deploy to or the Dockerfile to use
  • draft.tasks.toml: run commands before or after you deploy your container with draft (more info); we could have used this to install and remove the redis container
  • .draftignore: yes, to ignore stuff

Draft also created a charts folder that contains the Helm chart that draft will use to deploy your container. It can be modified to suit your particular needs as we will see later.

Helm charts folder and a partial view on the deployment.yaml file in the chart

Setting the container registry

In older versions of draft, the source files were compressed and sent to a sever-side component that created the container. At present though, the container is built locally and then pushed to a registry of your choice. If you want to use Azure Container Registry (ACR), run the following commands (set and login):

draft config set registry
az acr login -n REGISTRYNAME

Note that you need the Azure CLI for the last command. You also need to set the subscription to the one that contains the registry you reference.

With this configuration, you need Docker on your system. Docker will build and push the container. If you want to build in the cloud, you can use ACR Build Tasks. To do that, use these commands:

draft config set container-builder acrbuild
draft config set registry
draft config set resource-group-name RESOURCEGROUPNAME

Make sure your are logged in to the subscription (az login) and login to ACR as well before continuing. In this example, I used ACR build tasks.

Note: because ACR build tasks do not cache intermediate layers, this approach can lead to longer build times; when the image is small as in this case, doing a local build and push is preferred!

Running draft up

We are now ready to run draft up. Let’s do so and see what happens:

results of draft up

YES!!!! Draft built the container image and released it. Run helm ls to check the release. It did not have to push the image because it was built in ACR and pushed from there. Let’s check the ACR build logs in the portal (you can also use the draft logs command):

acr build log for the 2-stage Docker build

Fixing issues

Although the container is properly deployed (check it with helm ls), if you run kubectl get pods you will notice an error:

container error

In this case, the container errors out because it cannot find the redis host, which is a dependency. We can tell the container to look for redis via a REDISHOST environment variable. You can add it to deployment.yaml in the chart like so:

environment variable in deployment.yaml

After this change, just run draft up again and hope for the best!

Running draft connect

With the realtime-go container up and running, run draft connect:

output of draft connect

This maps a local port on your system to the remote port over an ssh tunnel. In addition, it streams the logs from the container. You can now connect to http://localhost:18181 (or whatever port you’ll get):

Great success! The app is running

If you want a public IP for your service, you can modify the Helm chart. In values.yaml, set service.type to LoadBalancer instead of ClusterIP and run draft up again. You can verify the external IP by running kubectl get svc.


Working with draft while your are working on one or more containers and still hacking away at your code really is smooth sailing. If you are not using it yet, give it a go and see if you like it. I bet you will!

Draft: a simpler way to deploy to Kubernetes during development

If you work with containers and work with Kubernetes, Draft makes it easier to deploy your code while you are in the earlier development stages. You use Draft while you are working on your code but before you commit it to version control. The idea is simple:

  • You have some code written in something like Node.js, Go or another supported language
  • You then use draft create to containerize the application based on Draft packs; several packs come with the tool and provide a Dockerfile and a Helm chart depending on the development language
  • You then use draft up to deploy the application to Kubernetes; the application is made accessible via a public URL

Let’s demonstrate how Draft is used, based on a simple Go application that is just a bit more complex than the Go example that comes with Draft. I will use the go-data service that I blogged about earlier. You can find the source code on GitHub. The go-data service is a very simple REST API. By calling the endpoint /data/{deviceid}, it will check if a “device” exists and then actually return no data. Hey, it’s just a sample! The service uses the Gorilla router but also Go Micro to call a device service running in the Kubernetes cluster. If the device service does not run, the data service will just report that the device does not exist.

Note that this post does not cover how to install Draft and its prerequisites like Helm and a Kubernetes Ingress Controller. You will also need a Kubernetes cluster (I used Azure ACS) and a container registry (I used Docker Hub). I installed all client-side components in the Windows 10 Linux shell which works great!

The only thing you need on your development box that has Helm and Draft installed is main.go and an empty glide.yaml file. The first command to run is draft create

This results in several files and folders being created, based on the Golang Draft pack. Draft detected you used Go because of glide.yaml. No Docker container is created at this point.

  • Dockerfile: a simple Dockerfile that builds an image based on the golang:onbuild image
  • draft.toml: the Draft configuration file that contains the name of the application (set randomly), the namespace to deploy to and if the folder needs to be watched for changes after you do draft up
  • chart folder: contains the Helm chart for your application; you might need to make changes here if you want to modify the Kubernetes deployment as we will do soon

When you deploy, Draft will do several things. It will package up the chart and your code and send it to the Draft server-side component running in Kubernetes. It will then instruct Draft to build your container, push it to a configured registry and then install the application in Kubernetes. All those tasks are performed by the Draft server component, not your client!

In my case, after running draft up, I get the following on my prompt (after the build, push and deploy steps):


In my case, the name of the application was set to exacerbated-ragdoll (in draft.toml). Part of what makes Draft so great is that it then makes the service available using that name and the configured domain. That works because of the following:

  • During installation of Draft, you need to configure an Ingress Controller in Kubernetes; you can use a Helm chart to make that easy; the Ingress Controller does the magic of mapping the incoming request to the correct application
  • When you configure Draft for the first time with draft init you can pass the domain (in my case; this requires a wildcard A record (e.g. * that points to the public IP of the Ingress Controller; note that in my case, I used Azure Container Services which makes that IP the public IP of an Azure load balancer that load balances traffic between the Ingress Controller instances (ngnix)

So, with only my source code and a few simple commands, the application was deployed to Kubernetes and made available on the Internet! There is only one small problem here. If you check my source code, you will see that there is no route for /. The Draft pack for Golang includes a livenessProbe on / and a readinessProbe on /. The probes are in deployment.yaml which is the file that defines the Kubernetes deployment. You will need to change the path in livenessProbe and readinessProbe to point to /data/device like so:

- containerPort: {{ .Values.service.internalPort }}
   path: /data/device
   port: {{ .Values.service.internalPort }}
   path: /data/device
   port: {{ .Values.service.internalPort }}

If you already deployed the application but Draft is still watching the folder, you can simply make the above changes and save the deployment.yaml file (in chart/templates). The container will then be rebuilt and the deployment will be updated. When you now check the service with curl, you should get something like:


Device active:  false
Oh and, no data for you!

To actually make the Go Micro features work, we will have to make another change to deployment.yaml. We will need to add an environment variable that instructs our code to find other services developed with Go Micro using the kubernetes registry:

- name: {{ .Chart.Name }}
  image: "{{ .Values.image.registry }}/{{ }}/{{ }}:{{ .Values.image.tag }}"
  imagePullPolicy: {{ .Values.image.pullPolicy }}
     value: kubernetes

To actually test this, use the following command to deploy the device service.

kubectl create -f

You can then check if it works by running the curl command again. It should now return the following:

Device active:  true
Oh and, no data for you!

Hopefully, you have seen how you can work with Draft from your development box and that you can modify the files generated by Draft to control how your application gets deployed. In our case, we had to modify the health checks to make sure the service can be reached. In addition, we had to add an environment variable because the code uses the Go Micro microservices framework.