In a previous post, I talked about installing Consul on Kubernetes and using some of its features. In that post, I did not look at the service mesh functionality. Before looking at that, it is beneficial to try out the service mesh features on your local machine.
You can easily install Consul on your local machine with Chocolatey for Windows or Homebrew for Mac. On Windows, a simple choco install consul is enough. Since Consul is just a single executable, you can start it from the command line with all the options you need.
In the video below, I walk through configuring two services running as containers on my local machine: a web app that talks to Redis. We will “mesh” both services and then use an intention to deny service-to-service traffic.
In a later post and video, we will look at Consul Connect on Kubernetes. Stay tuned!
Traefik’s admin site is first exposed as a ClusterIP service on port 8080. Next, an object of kind IngressRoute is defined, which is new for Traefik 2.0. You don’t need to create standard Ingress objects and configure Traefik with custom annotations. This new approach is cleaner. Of course, substitute the host with a host that points to the public IP of the load balancer. Or use the IP address with the xip.io domain. If your IP would be 220.127.116.11 then you could use something like admin.18.104.22.168.xip.io. That name automatically resolves to the IP in the name.
Let’s see if we can reach the admin interface:
Traefik 2.0 is now installed in a basic way and working properly. We exposed the admin interface but now it is time to expose the calculator API.
Exposing the calculator API
The API is deployed as 5 pods in the add namespace:
The API is exposed as a service of type ClusterIP with only an internal Kubernetes IP. To expose it via Traefik, we create the following object in the add namespace:
I am using xip.io above. Change 22.214.171.124 to the public IP of Traefik’s Azure Load Balancer. The add-svc that exposes the calculator API on port 80 is exposed via Traefik. We can easily call the service via:
Great! But what is that calcheader middleware? Middlewares modify the requests and responses to and from Traefik 2.0. There are all sorts of middelwares as explained here. You can set headers, configure authentication, perform rate limiting and much much more. In this case we create the following middleware object in the add namespace:
This middleware adds a header to the request before it comes in to Traefik. The header overrides the destination and sets it to the internal DNS name of the add-svc service that exposes the calculator API. This requirement is documented by Linkerd here.
Meshing the Traefik deployment
Because we want to mesh Traefik to get Linkerd metrics and more, we need to inject the Linkerd proxy in the Traefik pods. In my case, Traefik is deployed in the default namespace so the command below can be used:
Make sure you run the command on a system with the linkerd executable in your path and kubectl homed to the cluster that has Linkerd installed.
Checking the traffic in the Linkerd dashboard
With some traffic generated, this is what you should see when you check the meshed deployment that runs the calculator API (deploy/add):
If you are wondering what these services are and do, check this post. In the above diagram, we can clearly see we are receiving traffic to the calculator API from Traefik. When I click on Traefik, I see the following:
From the above, we see Traefik receives traffic via the Azure Load Balancer and that it forwards traffic to the calculator service. The live calls are coming from the admin UI which refreshes regularly.
In Grafana, we can get more information about the Traefik deployment:
This was just a brief look at both Traefik 2 and “meshing” Traefik with Linkerd. There is much more to say and I have much more to explore. Hopefully, this can get you started!